Vanderbilt University
Institute of Imaging Science
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Friday
10
September
2010
1:00pm
Charles Manning
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Molecular Probes for Cancer Imaging: Discovery and Validation   (more ...)
Molecular Probes for Cancer Imaging: Discovery and Validation   (hide ...)

The introduction of molecularly targeted therapies to treat cancer has underscored a critical need to develop and validate highly specific and robust biomarkers to predict patients likely to benefit from these interventions and to quantitatively assay their clinical and biological activity. Conventional biomarkers typically require invasive procurement of limited amounts of tissue with attendant risks and sampling errors due to heterogeneity. For this reason, noninvasive imaging methods capable of profiling tumors at the molecular level are eminently attractive. Major challenges within the field of translational molecular imaging include the discovery and development of novel probes and their rigorous validation within relevant biological contexts.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
September
2010
1:00pm
Melissa Skala
Vanderbilt University Biomedical Engineering
Multi-Functional Optical Imaging of Cancer in Pre-Clinical Models   (more ...)
Multi-Functional Optical Imaging of Cancer in Pre-Clinical Models   (hide ...)

Optical techniques are attractive for monitoring disease processes in living tissues because they are relatively cheap, non-invasive and provide a wealth of functional information. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are two types of three-dimensional optical imaging modalities that have demonstrated great utility in pre-clinical models of disease. My research has leveraged these techniques to study (1) metabolic, (2) vascular and (3) molecular biomarkers in cancer. These biomarkers can be used to identify the mechanisms of tumor growth, and to predict the response of a particular tumor to treatment. Specifically, MPM of the co-enzymes NADH and FAD was used to quantify metabolic changes associated with early cancers in animal models. Vascular imaging was achieved with a combined spectral / OCT microscope that quantifies microvessel blood oxygenation, morphology and blood flow velocity in tumors. Both of these technologies exploit intrinsic sources of tissue contrast and thus do not require contrast agents. Ongoing work combines these metabolic (MPM) and vascular (spectral / OCT) imaging techniques to provide a complete picture of oxygen supply and demand in response to tumor therapy. Molecular signaling represents a third critical component in tumor physiology. To this end we have recently developed photothermal OCT, which combines coherent detection with laser-heated gold nanoparticles to achieve high-resolution molecular contrast at deeper depths than MPM. This multi-functional imaging platform will provide unprecedented insight into oxygen supply and demand, and molecular signaling in response to tumor therapies in animal models.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
September
2010
1:00pm
Jianhui Zhong
University of Rochester Medical Center
Longitudinal DTI Studies: Approaches and Challenges   (more ...)
Longitudinal DTI Studies: Approaches and Challenges   (hide ...)

This presentation will present on preliminary results in analyzing longitudinal results from mild traumatic brain injury and other brain abnormalities usin DTI.
Focus will be on the current issues and challenges and audience input will be appreciated.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
October
2010
1:00pm
Lori Arlinghaus
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Translating quantitative MR techniques from the brain to the breast   (more ...)
Translating quantitative MR techniques from the brain to the breast   (hide ...)

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among American women. Currently, tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is monitored by frank changes in tumor morphology, such as size as measured by physical exam, mammography, and/or ultrasound. However, it may take weeks to months before measureable changes occur in response to successful treatment. Several quantitative magnetic resonance imaging methods typically used in neuroimaging applications have the potential to be sensitive to changes in tumors that occur on the cellular level prior to gross morphological changes, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), magnetization transfer (MT), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), and high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) imaging. I will discuss the current status of the development and application of these methods for assessment of treatment response in breast cancer at 3T.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
October
2010
1:00pm
Greg Karczmar
University of Chicago
Detection of early breast cancers with MRI
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
October
2010
1:00pm
Ha-Kyu Jeong
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
High resolution diffusion-weighted imaging at 7T
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
October
2010
1:00pm
Armando Manduca
Mayo Clinic
Nonconvex Compressive Sensing Methods for Highly Accelerated 4D MRA   (more ...)
Nonconvex Compressive Sensing Methods for Highly Accelerated 4D MRA   (hide ...)

Compressed or compressive sensing (CS) is a novel signal processing theory that asserts that the number of samples required to reconstruct an image accurately is related to the information content in the image. CS has been gaining significant attention in medical imaging in general and MRI in particular since it offers the promise of accurate image reconstruction from highly undersampled data. This leads to reduced acquisition times (and potentially reduced radiation dose in CT), or this benefit can be traded off for higher spatial and temporal resolution or higher image quality. However, there are significant limitations to current CS approaches in MRI, including long computation times, and relatively few successful applications have been reported to date. Many current MR techniques, particularly MR angiography (MRA) and MR perfusion imaging, are limited by low spatial and/or temporal resolution and low SNR. Recent developments in highly undersampled MRI acquisition strategies and in compressive sensing reconstruction algorithms, when applied to 3D contrast enhanced MRA exams, have improved the combined spatial and temporal resolution of such exams by 10X, improved the visualization of vessels and increased SNR, and dramatically improved the depiction of perfused regions. A computational framework has also been developed that can reconstruct such data in clinically reasonable times. This talk will give an overview of CS in general and the nonconvex CS paradigm that we favor in particular, describe the MRA results above as well as related work on low contrast detectability, and discuss some directions for future research.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
29
October
2010
1:00pm
Sam Nolting
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Noninvasive In Vivo Detection of MMP Activity using Novel Proteolytic Solubility-Switch SPECT Probes   (more ...)
Noninvasive In Vivo Detection of MMP Activity using Novel Proteolytic Solubility-Switch SPECT Probes   (hide ...)

Matrix metalloproteinsases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteinases, many of which are implicated in tumor progression. These studies focus upon quantifying MMP activity in vivo by SPECT imaging to test the utility of imaging MMP activity as a reporter of tumor status and therapy response. SPECT probes (PBM7rad and PBM9rad) were designed using principles found successful in recently-developed proteolysis-activated solubility-switchable MRI probes. In these probes, an MMP substrate peptide is linked to domains of differing solubility and modified to bind 99mTc(CO)3+, 68Ga3+ or 111In3+. Upon cleavage in the tumor environment, the radiolabeled domain is designed to accumulate at the tumor site. In vitro pilot studies show successful binding of 99mTc(CO)3+ by PBM7rad and stability to competing chelates such as L-histidine. 99mTc-PBM7rad is tolerated in C57Bl6 mice, but demonstrates unfavorable biodistribution in these mice. Current work with PBM9rad aims to increase the solubility of the probe and improve its pharmacokinetics. In future studies, the MMP selectivity of an optimized probe will be assessed in xenograft studies and its sensitivity will be explored using spontaneous cancer models in mice. Ultimately, the SPECT probe will be tested for assessment of tumor response to therapy. The PBM#rad series of probes is designed to image cancer early in its progression and detect subtle changes in the microenvironment of tumors, providing an early metric with potential for predicting therapeutic response.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
05
November
2010
1:00pm
Reed Thompson
Vanderbilt University Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery: imagining the Future
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
12
November
2010
1:00pm
Bruce Damon
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Professional Expectations of Individuals in the Academic Environment
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
19
November
2010
1:00pm
John Oshinski
Emory School of Medicine
Georgia Insititute of Technology
Can MRI Play a Role in Patient Selection for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?   (more ...)
Can MRI Play a Role in Patient Selection for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?   (hide ...)

Using current patient selection criteria (NYHA class III/IV heart failure, LVEF <35%, QRS duration >120 ms, optimal medical therapy for >1 month), >30% of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with a biventricular pacemaker do not respond positively to the treatment. The high non-response rate to CRT as well as the high cost of the treatment has motivated investigators to seek new imaging methods to better identify patients who will respond to CRT. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is the only non-invasive modality that can determine the three factors most often associated with response to CRT: the presence of mechanical dyssynchrony in the ventricle, the amount and location of myocardial scar, and the anatomy of the coronary venous structures. Combing an imaging assessment of all of the factors could better select patients who will positively respond to CRT, help with understanding the relationship of the factors that effect response to CRT, and elucidate the underlying electro-mechanical coupling involved in determining patient response to CRT.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
December
2010
1:00pm
Laurie Cutting
Vanderbilt University Kennedy Center
Neurobiological Effects of Different Training Approaches on Word Learning
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
December
2010
1:00pm
Manus Donahue
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Understanding brain function in health and disease through development and application of new functional MRI approaches   (more ...)
Understanding brain function in health and disease through development and application of new functional MRI approaches   (hide ...)

Functional MRI is commonly performed using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) approach, which is sensitive to ensemble hemodynamic changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). Understanding how these parameters adjust during and following neuronal activity is important for understanding the BOLD contrast mechanism, and also for probing disease mechanisms where cerebrovascular reactivity may be impaired. I will present work showing how hemodynamics can be investigated using new, noninvasive CBF-weighted arterial spin labelling (ASL) and CBV-weighted vascular-space-occupancy (VASO) approaches. Current knowledge regarding the contrast mechanisms of these approaches will be presented, followed by an overview of applications of these techniques to mechanistic neurovascular coupling, tumor grading, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease studies.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
January
2011
1:00pm
William Grissom
GE Global Research, Munich, Germany
Monitoring Temperature in Moving Organs using MRI   (more ...)
Monitoring Temperature in Moving Organs using MRI   (hide ...)

Magnetic resonance thermometry using the proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift is a promising technique for guiding thermal ablation using lasers, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and RF current. The calculation of temperature rises using the PRF-shift technique involves the subtraction of a phase image acquired prior to heating (a baseline image), from a phase image acquired during heating (a treatment image). While this technique works well in stationary organs, the motion of organs such as the liver and the heart causes misalignment between the baseline and treatment images which must be addressed. In this talk, two novel approaches to overcoming motion in PRF-shift thermometry will be presented. The first is a referenceless method based on robust regression that does not require a baseline phase image, and is well-suited for larger organs such as the liver. We also present a hybrid multi-baseline and referenceless method that uses a library of baseline images acquired across the organ's cycle of motion, and is capable of accurately estimating temperature changes in the presence of rapid anatomical phase variations and smooth dynamic main field changes caused by respiration and heart motion. The methods will be demonstrated in the liver, heart, and brain.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
14
January
2011
1:00pm
Brian Welch
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Body Composition Imaging   (more ...)
Body Composition Imaging   (hide ...)

Obesity is an epidemic affecting 70 million people in the United States and over 300 million worldwide. Health consequences of obesity include elevated risk for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, gallbladder disease, musculoskeletal disorders and several types of cancer. However, not all types of adiposity confer equivalent risk. Mounting evidence indicates relationships among genotype, ethnicity, body composition and cardiometabolic risk. To advance investigations of obesity, clinicians and researchers require methods to characterize body composition to assess the amount, type (subcutaneous or visceral) and distribution of adipose tissue. Imaging methods are considered by many to be among the most accurate tools available for measuring adipose tissue in body tissues and organs in clinical research because such methods provide information about the spatial distribution of adipose tissue. In this talk, several non-imaging methods for assessing body composition will be briefly described before focusing on the wide array of biomedical imaging approaches available such as those based on DEXA, CT and MRI. In particular, MRI is a versatile body composition imaging modality with several distinct techniques for separating water and fat such as methods based on T1, in-phase/out-of-phase subtraction, multi-echo analysis and spectroscopy. Recently, multi-echo MR acquisitions have been used to acquire whole-body fat-water scans in a scan time of only several minutes. This talk will conclude with an in-depth discussion of multi-echo MR fat-water imaging methods and a discussion of some recent applications and results using this promising MRI approach.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
21
January
2011
1:00pm
Bruce Damon
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
NIH 101
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
28
January
2011
1:00pm
David Smith
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Applications of Compressive Sensing MRI   (more ...)
Applications of Compressive Sensing MRI   (hide ...)

The mathematical theory of compressive sensing (CS) works wonderfully on idealized signals, but MRI is far from ideal. Magnetic resonance images are only sometimes compressible, almost never sparse, and always noisy. We have tackled many projects in the last six months to better understand the border between fact and fiction in CS MRI. I will first present a brief introduction to CS MRI. Then I will present some of the results from our CS MRI projects, including CS DCE MRI, CS DSC MRI, high-SNR spinal cord imaging, CS upsampling, phase smoothing, regularized CS SENSE reconstruction, acquisition robustness, and Adaptive Acquisition. Most of these projects will showcase results from our in house CS algorithms, implemented on our custom, state-of-the-art GPU-based reconstructor and crunching actual scanner data.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
February
2011
1:00pm
Ash Jayagopal
Vanderbilt Dept. of Chemistry
Nanoscale Probes for Optical Imaging of RNA in Disease
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
February
2011
1:00pm
Anuj Srivastava
Florida State University
Statistical Shape Analysis of Parametrized Curves and Surfaces With Applications to Anatomical Objects
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
February
2011
1:00pm
Nellie Byun
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Detection of M4 Muscarinic Cholinergic Regulation of Dopamine with Pharmacologic MRI: Evaluating a Novel Antipsychotic Target   (more ...)
Detection of M4 Muscarinic Cholinergic Regulation of Dopamine with Pharmacologic MRI: Evaluating a Novel Antipsychotic Target   (hide ...)

Pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) is a functional MRI application used to detect specific brain activation patterns and regional pharmacokinetics of psychoactive compounds. The administration of amphetamine, which increases synaptic dopamine levels that lead to activation of specific brain regions detectable by phMRI, can cause psychosis in healthy subjects and exacerbate symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In rodent models, acute amphetamine administration is used to model the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (psychosis). Also in line with the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, all current antipsychotic drugs target the D2 dopamine receptor. However, the major side effects of current schizophrenia treatments beg for the development of new therapies with different mechanisms of action. Another way to regulate dopamine is through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Until recently, there have been no compounds that selectively target only one of the five muscarinic receptors. The development of VU0152100 by the Conn and Jones laboratories, a compound that selectively targets the M4 muscarinic receptor and crosses the blood brain barrier, has given us an unprecedented tool to study the role of M4 in the brain and evaluate a putative novel antipsychotic compound. Our studies in the acute amphetamine rat model predictive of schizophrenia using contrast-enhanced cerebral blood volume (CBV) phMRI show that pretreatment with the M4 potentiator VU0152100 regulates dopamine output, which is corroborated by behavioral studies.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
February
2011
1:00pm
Roman Shchepin
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Synthesis of Hyperpolarized Tracers for RealTime Metabolic MRI of Breast Cancer
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
March
2011
1:00pm
John Gore
VUIIS
Bogus Science   (more ...)
Bogus Science   (hide ...)

A brief overview of different kinds of Bogus Science, especially as it pertains to imaging and academic research. Dr. Gore teaches a Freshman Writing Seminar on this topic and will share some of the content and aims of that course. Its description in the Course Catalog says: "we will study some recent and notorious examples of bad science--cases involving deliberate fraud by scientists as well as examples of claims and reports by well-meaning individuals that have turned out to be bogus. The pursuit of science is supposed to include various safeguards to test the validity of new knowledge and discoveries, such as peer review of publications, testing whether results can be reproduced, and application of "the scientific method." But there have been many notorious examples of deliberate fraud by scientists including the successful publication of claims that have subsequently been shown to be false, and sometimes ridiculous. This course will examine some of the more illustrative cases of deliberate fraud and bad science that have been uncovered and the motives behind their perpetrators. Many such cases reveal defects in the manner in which science and academic matters are reviewed, while others demonstrate how the media and the public can be manipulated by unscrupulous charlatans. In reviewing these cases we will try to examine how science is supposed to operate to avoid these lapses and why bogus science succeeds"
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
March
2011
1:00pm
No Seminar - Spring Break
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
March
2011
1:00pm
Seth Smith
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
The fewer the facts, the stonger the opinion - Arnold Glasgow. Why go small in MRI?
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
March
2011
1:00pm
Mark Does
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Probing white matter microstructure with MRI   (more ...)
Probing white matter microstructure with MRI   (hide ...)

Differences in water proton concentration and relaxation rates provide excellent MRI contrast between white and grey matter, but MRI also offers the potential to look beyond inter-voxel contrast to the sub-voxel scale. At the spatial scale of micrometers, white matter is heterogeneous, comprised of myelinated axons of varied size and geometric orientation. Different MRI methods are used to interrogate this sub-voxel information: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), and multi-exponential transverse relaxation analysis (MET2), but a comprehensive model relating these measures to each other and to white matter micro-anatomy has remained elusive. Our recent studies have cast new light on this picture, revealing the role of myelin thickness in MET2 and identifying both T2 and MT characteristics for methylene membran! e protons. This talk will discuss these experimental studies and their relevance to characterizing white matter microstructure with MRI.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
April
2011
1:00pm
Nkiruka Atuegwu
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science

Incorporation of DW-MRI Data into a Simple Model of Tumor Growth: Preliminary Results

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Incorporation of DW-MRI Data into a Simple Model of Tumor Growth: Preliminary Results

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The impact of mathematical models on predicting tumor growth can be enhanced with the addition of imaging data because parameters available from imaging can be obtained noninvasively, in 3D, longitudinally, and specifically for each patient. The predictions made from mathematical models parameterized by imaging data are patient specific and can readily be checked against actual measurements obtained at later time points. We show how a simple mathematical model of tumor growth can be parameterized by values obtained from sequential diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). DW-MRI data obtained early in the course of therapy was used to estimate tumor proliferation rates, and these rates where then used to predict tumor cellularity at the conclusion of therapy.

VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
April
2011
1:00pm
Amanda Buck
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Imaging cardiovascular and muscle biomechanics   (more ...)
Imaging cardiovascular and muscle biomechanics   (hide ...)

MR imaging-based biomechanics can be used to non-invasively assess function and to elucidate the relationship between mechanics and disease. This talk will describe projects using MR data 1) to characterize the physiologic flow field in the vertebrobasilar system using computational fluid dynamics (CFD); 2) to study cerebral artery hemodynamics in pediatric sickle cell disease patients using CFD for the long term goal of elucidating the association between hemodynamics and stroke risk; and 3) to determine the relationship between structure and function in the lower extremity muscles in healthy subjects using fiber tracking for the purpose of applying this framework in studies with Becker Muscular Dystrophy patients.

VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
April
2011
1:00pm
Jeffery Ankar
Clemson University
Chemical and biophysical sensing with magnetic and X-ray excited optical luminescence probes   (more ...)
Chemical and biophysical sensing with magnetic and X-ray excited optical luminescence probes   (hide ...)

Fluorescence-based chemical sensing techniques are highly sensitive and versatile, but three principle obstacles limit their use in scattering environments. First, absorbance and scattering attenuates the signal; second, tissue autofluorescence provides spectral interference; third, scattering dramatically reduces the spatial resolution of imaging. We developed two types of probes, Magneticallay modulate optical nanoprobes (MagMOONs) and radioluinescent chemical sensors, to overcome these limitations. MagMOONs are fluorescent microspheres that have been coated with a hemisphereical metal half-shell using vapor deposition. The opaque metal breaks the microsphere's optical symmetry so that it scatters light and fluoresces in an orientation-dependent manner (it looks like a moon with a fluorescent bright side, a metal capped dark side, and a crescent-shape that depends on its orientation). If the microsphere contains magnetic material, it aligns with an external magnetic and will rotate in a rotating magnetic field. As the particle rotates it blinks as it turns through bright and dark orientations. The blinking signal from these MagMOONs can be separated from unmodulated autofluorescence backgrounds allowing detection in fluorescent and turbid environments. The blinking fluorescence spectrum provides a measure of the concentration of chemical analytes that interact with fluorescent dyes within the microspheres. The signal from a few thousand MagMOONs can be detected through at least 9 mm of chicken breast even using green excitation with intense autofluorescence backgrounds. However, the spatial resolution remains limited by optical scattering. In order to localize luminescence from chemical sensors within a tissue, we employ a novel radioluminescent spectrochemical probe. These probes provide high resolution chemical measurements, limited by the width of the X-ray beam because only probes within the beam emit light. These probes have important applications in minimally-invasive chemical and biophysical tissue measurements.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
April
2011
1:00pm
Bennett Landman
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Capturing Structure in MRI by Working Together: Techniques for Label Fusion
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
29
April
2011
1:00pm
Ted Towse
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
May
2011
1:00pm
Swati Rane
Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
Cerebral Blood Volume Measurement with functional MRI
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
May
2011
1:00pm
Imam Uddin
Dalhousie University
Design and Synthesis of Receptor-Targeting C-Ring Functionalized Prodigiosenes for the Treatment of Cancers & Utilities of N-Heterocycles in C-C and C-heteroatom Bond-forming Reactions   (more ...)
Design and Synthesis of Receptor-Targeting C-Ring Functionalized Prodigiosenes for the Treatment of Cancers & Utilities of N-Heterocycles in C-C and C-heteroatom Bond-forming Reactions   (hide ...)

Prodigiosin is a naturally occurring red pigment isolated from several Serratia and Streptomyces bacterial strains and is of medicinal interest due to immunosuppressive, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The anti-cancer activity of prodigiosin is thought to be due to a combination of factors: it is an efficient H+/Cl- transporter and it is able to induce copper-mediated double-strand DNA cleavage. However, its high level of toxicity has excluded its use as a therapeutic agent. Thus, numerous investigations have been focused on the structure-activity relationships in prodigiosenes (synthetic analogs of prodigiosin) and their abilities as anti-cancer agents with improved selectivity over existing chemotherapeutic options. Details of the synthesis and biological property of our new prodigiosenes including a novel process involving substituted pyrroles and diprrins will be discussed. A number of green processes involving high-pressure and microwave irradiation for the construction of important carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions using different nitrogen-heterocycles will also be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
September
2011
1:00pm
Adam Anderson
Vanderbilt University
MRI Measurements of Structural Connectivity in the Brain
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
September
2011
1:00pm
Natalie Han
Vanderbilt University
Effect of Non-Rigid Registration Algorithms on the Analysis of Brain MR Images with Deformation Based Morphometry   (more ...)
Effect of Non-Rigid Registration Algorithms on the Analysis of Brain MR Images with Deformation Based Morphometry   (hide ...)

Deformation Based Morphometry (DBM) is a widely used method for characterizing anatomical differences across populations. DBM is based on the analysis of the deformation fields generated by non-rigid registration algorithms, that warp the individual volumes to a DBM atlas. Although several studies have compared non-rigid registration algorithms for segmentation tasks, few studies have compared the effect of the registration algorithms on group differences that may be uncovered through DBM. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the extent to which DBM results are a function of the registration algorithms used to compute the deformation fields. Five well-established non-rigid registration algorithms are compared: (1) The Adaptive Bases Algorithm (ABA); (2) The Image Registration Toolkit (IRTK); (3) The FSL Nonlinear Image Registration Tool (FSL); (4) The Automatic Registration Tool (ART); and (5) the normalization algorithm available in SPM8. These algorithms are tested on two very different real data sets and a series of simulated datasets. The first real data set has large and well-documented anatomical differences between normal subjects and subjects with the Williams Syndrome. The second real data set contains MR images of third-grade children with different levels of mathematical abilities; anatomical differences in his data set are more subtle. Because the lack of ground truths makes it difficult to compare algorithms under controlled conditions, a series of simulated MR images with various known anatomical differences are produced. DBM results obtained with various registration algorithms are compared with the introduced ground truth both qualitatively and quantitatively. The main conclusions that can be drawn from this work is that (1) DBM-based findings are indeed dependent on the registration algorithm that is used and (2) the FWE statistical scheme that is commonly used to multiple comparison correction may be over-conservative. When performing DBM analysis, our suggestions would be to use more than one algorithm and to look for regions that are consistently labeled as statistically significant across these algorithms. DBM results should be interpreted with care and the characteristics of the registration algorithm used need to be taken into consideration in the interpretation process. We are also the first to report that brain anatomy may correlate with the level of mathematical performances in a relatively large population of third graders.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
September
2011
1:00pm
Elizabeth Maher
UT Southwestern
Imaging in Translational Research of Malignant Gliomas Bridges the Gap Between Basic Investigations and Clinical Management
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
September
2011
1:00pm
Charles Caskey
UC Davis
Emerging technologies in ultrasound imaging, therapeutics, and guided ultrasonic intervention   (more ...)
Emerging technologies in ultrasound imaging, therapeutics, and guided ultrasonic intervention   (hide ...)

While ultrasound (US) is well known for creating real-time 2D maps of anatomy and blood flow, emerging applications have demonstrated many exciting possibilities that will expand the capabilities of ultrasound to include image-guided localized drug and gene delivery, targeted imaging, and generation of local hyperthermia. Successful and safe implementation of these technologies requires development of novel hardware and a multi-disciplinary approach that considers the biological problem being addressed as well as underlying physical mechanisms. In this talk, I will first discuss the development of an open source computed tomography (CT) and US fusion designed to facilitate image-guided application of mild hyperthermia with ultrasound. Our real-time fused CT/US system provides navigational assistance to US for therapeutic intervention, as well as tissue mapping, which is vital for ultrasound thermometry. The CT/US system has accuracy on the order of 1 millimeter and is implemented in an extendable, open-source framework on a C-arm cone-beam CT scanner with a flat panel detector, similar to a new generation of CT scanners available in interventional radiology suites. The second part of the talk will discuss mechanisms for vascular permeability enhancement using micron-sized, lipid-encapsulated contrast agents, called microbubbles. Co-injection of these bubbles with a drug or gene of interest, followed by application of ultrasound has been shown by many researchers to enhance drug delivery and permeability; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. Here, I will relate images of microbubbles undergoing MHz-scale oscillation to theoretical formulations of microbubble activity to define a parameter space for safe and effective use of microbubbles for drug delivery.

VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
30
September
2011
1:00pm
Marcin Jankiewicz
Vanderbilt University
RF Pulse designs for 7T scanner   (more ...)
RF Pulse designs for 7T scanner   (hide ...)

The goal of the presentation is to review some of the RF strategies for 7 Tesla MRI, developed and investigated by our group at Vanderbilt. The strategies target unwanted RF and static field inhomogeneity patterns that corrupt image quality. The solutions developed by our group include modification and optimization of the scanner’s hardware as well as software. The talk will focus on the latter which demonstrate the capabilities of multi-transmit technology, spectral-spatial excitations and optimized composite pulses.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
October
2011
1:00pm
Todd Peterson
Vanderbilt University
Multi-pinhole SPECT with Semiconductor Detectors   (more ...)
Multi-pinhole SPECT with Semiconductor Detectors   (hide ...)

Improving the utility of small-animal SPECT for molecular imaging studies requires addressing the competing demands for sensitivity and spatial resolution. Our strategy involves combining a novel collimation scheme with semiconductor-based radiation detectors. I will describe the SPECT systems we are developing within the context of competing approaches.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
14
October
2011
1:00pm
Bob Galloway
Vanderbilt University
Image-Guided Surgery and Procedures
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
21
October
2011
1:00pm
Michael Goldfarb
Vanderbilt University
Some Forward-Looking Assistive Devices to Improve Quality of Life for Persons with Physical Disabilities   (more ...)
Some Forward-Looking Assistive Devices to Improve Quality of Life for Persons with Physical Disabilities   (hide ...)

Recent advances in robotics technology have brought to the near horizon some new possibilities with respect to the development of assistive devices for purposes of enhancing the mobility and/or functionality of persons with physical disabilities. This talk will focus on the development of three such assistive devices, which are intended to provide enhanced mobility and/or functionality for persons with lower limb loss, upper limb loss, and with paraplegia, respectively. Specifically, the talk will describe the development of a powered transfemoral prosthesis for lower extremity amputees, the development of a multigrasp hand for upper extremity amputees, and the development of a lower limb exoskeleton for legged mobility assistance in individuals with paraplegia.

VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
28
October
2011
1:00pm
Bruce Damon
Vanderbilt University
(BOLDly) Imaging Muscle Microvascular Function
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
November
2011
1:00pm
Carolyn Lauzon
Vanderbilt University
Improving Statistical Analysis for DTI: Empirical Bias Evaluations and Mutli-Method Comparisons   (more ...)
Improving Statistical Analysis for DTI: Empirical Bias Evaluations and Mutli-Method Comparisons   (hide ...)

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables investigation of the cytoarchitectural environment of in vivo tissues through contrasts sensitive to water diffusion barriers at the micrometer level, e.g., axonal membranes. Estimated contrasts (e.g., fractional anisotropy) exhibit both variability and bias relative to the true quantitative contrasts that could be estimated from a hypothetical noise-free acquisition. Much previous work has shown the magnitude and direction of bias is dependent on anatomy, imaging sequence, and noise level. Hence, comparison of DTI contrasts across acquisitions can be statistically troubling, especially for subtle effects. Herein, we present the use of the SIMulation and EXtrapolation (SIMEX) approach for assessment of bias in a massively-univariate imaging setting and evaluate the potential of a SIMEX-based bias correction. Spatially varying FA and MD bias error maps are evaluated on independent and highly differentiated case studies. With this approach, we find significant reductions in contrast bias which could be used to ensure constancy in analyses across diverse DTI scans and suggests increased power and specificity for secondary statistical studies.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
November
2011
1:00pm
Nathan Bryant
Vanderbilt University
Multi-parametric MRI studies of inflammation in murine quadricep muscle   (more ...)
Multi-parametric MRI studies of inflammation in murine quadricep muscle   (hide ...)

Healthy skeletal muscle was compared to inflammation in the contralateral quadriceps muscles of mice. T2, indices of diffusion, quantitative magnetization transfer, and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI data were acquired during the same imaging session. The edematous muscle exhibited a significant increase in T2, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the DCE estimate of the interstitial volume, while a concomitant decrease was observed in the proton pool ratio. The aim of this study is to provide a basis for understanding how inflammation, in isolation from complex pathology, influences the quantitative MRI parameters that are commonly used to characterize muscle disease.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
November
2011
1:00pm
Stephanie Barnes
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
November
2011
1:00pm
No Seminar: Happy Thanksgiving!
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
December
2011
1:00pm
Zhongliang Zu
Vanderbilt University
CERT vs. CEST: a new approach to image amide exchange   (more ...)
CERT vs. CEST: a new approach to image amide exchange   (hide ...)

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) has been used in many applications. However, the traditional asymmetry analysis has limitations so that the conventional CEST contrast is sensitive to some non-ideal cases including B0 inhomogeneity, macromolecular pool asymmetry, and lipid. We study the oscillation of pulsed-CEST signal as a function of irradiation flip angle and name it chemical exchange rotation transfer (CERT). A new contrast (double angle APT) was provided based on CERT to increase the robustness of APT signal to the non-ideal cases. In addition, a ratiometric was also provided based on CERT to get concentration independent pH measurement.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
December
2011
1:00pm
Nellie Byun
Vanderbilt University
Central effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 potentiation determined by pharmacologic MRI   (more ...)
Central effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 potentiation determined by pharmacologic MRI   (hide ...)

Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) has been used to assess the effects of specific agents on regional changes in brain activity and their associated hemodynamic effects. Previous preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of compounds that target the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) for the treatment of schizophrenia. Both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs suppress amphetamine (Amph)-induced hyperlocomotion in rodents, so this model is considered to be able to predict the antipsychotic efficacy of a compound. VU0360172 is a selective mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator that reverses Amph-induced hyperlocomotion in rats. We are currently using phMRI to determine whether potentiation of mGluR5 with VU0360172 can attenuate Amph-induced brain activation and to identify the specific brain regions underlying the compound’s ability to modulate Amph-induced cerebral blood volume changes as well as the effects of compound alone.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
December
2011
1:00pm
Henry Ong
University of Pennsylvania
Indirect Detection of Axonal Architecture with Q-space Imaging   (more ...)
Indirect Detection of Axonal Architecture with Q-space Imaging   (hide ...)

Evaluating axon morphology would provide insights into connectivity, maturation, and disease pathology. Conventional diffusion MRI can provide metrics that are related to axon morphology, but cannot measure specific parameters such as mean axon diameter. Q-space imaging (QSI), an advanced diffusion MRI technique, offers potential for indirect estimation of specific axonal architecture metrics by exploiting the regularity of molecular diffusion barriers from axon membranes and myelin sheaths.

QSI theory stipulates that the molecular diffusion during the diffusion gradient must be negligible. Consequently, strong gradient amplitudes not commercially available are needed to accurately study structures as small as axons. By using a custom 5000 G/cm single axis gradient and RF coil set, we have sufficient gradient strength to execute near ideal QSI experiments. With these unique capabilities, we can therefore investigate the true potential of QSI imaging to indirectly assess axon morphology. We examined excised fixed mouse spinal cords with QSI to estimate mean axon diameter, axon diameter distribution, and intracellular volume fraction and compared the results with histology.

VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
January
2012
1:00pm
Jack Virostko
Vanderbilt University
Molecular Imaging of Diabetes Progression   (more ...)
Molecular Imaging of Diabetes Progression   (hide ...)

I will discuss progress in multimodal imaging (bioluminescence, CT, and PET) of the pancreatic beta cell, the cell type responsible for insulin production. I will demonstrate tomographic reconstruction of bioluminescent sources and coregistration with two novel, complementary models to evaluate a PET radiotracer thought to target pancreatic beta cells. Tomographic reconstruction of the bioluminescent signal in mice expressing luciferase only in pancreatic beta cells was used to delineate the pancreas and was co-registered with PET and CT images. This strategy enabled unambiguous identification of the pancreas on PET images, permitting accurate quantification of the pancreatic PET signal. To determine whether the radiotracer reflects beta cell mass, conditional, specific, and rapid mouse beta cell ablation was induced and imaged by BLI and PET imaging. To determine whether these ligands bound human beta cells in vivo, mice were transplanted with luciferase-expressing human islets and imaged using bioluminescence and PET imaging. This data demonstrates the utility of co-registered multimodal imaging as a platform for evaluation and validation of candidate ligands for imaging islets. I will discuss additional candidate ligands that are currently being evaluated using this model system.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
January
2012
1:00pm
Richard Dortch
Vanderbilt University
Magnetization Transfer Imaging: Developments and Applications in Human Neurological Disorders   (more ...)
Magnetization Transfer Imaging: Developments and Applications in Human Neurological Disorders   (hide ...)

In addition to the free water protons typically observed in MRI, there are protons residing in, or closely associated with, immobile macromolecules in tissue. Typical imaging sequences do not directly detect this pool of protons because they exhibit very short transverse relaxation times and, therefore, lose coherence before their signal can be captured. This macromolecule proton pool can, however, be indirectly detected by exploiting its coupling to the free water pool via chemical exchange and/or dipolar mechanisms [referred to together as the magnetization transfer (MT) effect]. Previous studies have shown that the bulk of the MT effect in myelinated tissue arises from myelin-associated lipids, suggesting that MT contrast may be a more specific marker for myelin pathology than conventional imaging methods. In this talk, I will discuss our development of robust, clinically feasible MT imaging sequences for the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves at 3.0 and 7.0 T. Preliminary application of these sequences to disorders affecting central and peripheral myelin will also be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
February
2012
1:00pm
Limin Chen
Vanderbilt University
Longitudinal fMRI of cortical plasticity following spinal cord injury in adult non-human primates   (more ...)
Longitudinal fMRI of cortical plasticity following spinal cord injury in adult non-human primates   (hide ...)

Somatosensory cortices are capable of considerable reactivation and somatotopic reorganization after the loss of cutaneous afferents input from parts of the body. This reorganization is associated with behavioral recovery, but time courses and the underlying neural mechanism of cortical reorganization are not well understood. By taking advantage of noninvasiveness of fMRI and the high resolution at ultra-high MRI field (9.4T), we longitudinally mapped the dynamic reorganization of the digit representation in area 3b (the primary somatosensory cortex of primates) during the behavioral recovery period after a unilateral section of the dorsal column of spinal cord. We found that the extent of reorganization of the input-deprived digit region was correlated with the behavioral deficit of spinal cord lesioned animals on a food reaching and retrieving task. To validate the fMRI findings, we compared fMRI activation maps of the digits with maps defined by high resolution optical imaging (OI) and dense microelectrode recordings. Functional imaging (fMRI and OI) maps of input-deprived single digits were larger than those defined by neuronal electrical responses. In contrast to normal area 3b cortex, neuronal electrical activity of input-deprived cortical regions showed a frequency dependent dissociation between spiking and local field potentials. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI is a valuable tool for monitoring cortical plasticity. However, the observation of a spatial disagreement between functional imaging and maps of neuronal electrical activity and the dissociation between unit spiking and local field potential call for more cautious interpretations of BOLD fMRI findings in pathological conditions.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
February
2012
1:00pm
David Zald
Vanderbilt University
Some New Directions in Functional Connectivity Abstract   (more ...)
Some New Directions in Functional Connectivity Abstract   (hide ...)

Neuroimaging data is increasingly used to understand the connectivity of different brain regions. I will focus on two relatively new techniques for understanding functional connectivity. Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling (MACM) probes the extent to which functional areas co-activate across studies in the literature. Unlike studies that focus on resting state data, the MACM approach allows examination of task-related activations, and thus allows analysis of the types of tasks associated with a given connectivity pattern. We have recently used this technique to reveal functional connections of the human orbitofrontal cortex. I will also describe the use of whole brain metrics based on graph theory analysis to explore group or individual differences in connectivity patterns. We have recently used this approach to examine whether the personality trait of impulsivity is characterized by network features at the whole brain level. In both cases I will describe some of the opportunities afforded by these techniques as well as some of the key limitations.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
February
2012
1:00pm
William Grissom
Vanderbilt University
Nonuniform and multidimensional Shinnar-Le Roux RF pulse design algorithm   (more ...)
Nonuniform and multidimensional Shinnar-Le Roux RF pulse design algorithm   (hide ...)

The Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) radiofrequency (RF) pulse design algorithm is widely used for designing slice-selective RF pulses due to its intuitiveness, optimality, and speed. SLR is limited, however, in that it is only capable of designing one-dimensional pulses played along constant gradients. I will present a nonuniform SLR RF pulse design framework that extends most of the capabilities of classical SLR to nonuniform gradient trajectories and multiple dimensions. Specifically, like classical SLR, the new method is a hard pulse approximation-based technique that uses filter design relationships to produce the lowest power RF pulse that satisfies target magnetization ripple levels. We have validated the new method and compared it to methods conventionally used for nonuniform and multidimensional large-tip-angle RF pulse design.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
February
2012
1:00pm
Founder Series Lecture
Ravinder Reddy
University of Pennsylvania
High Resolution Imaging of Glutamate   (more ...)
High Resolution Imaging of Glutamate   (hide ...)

Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain and is likely involved in nearly all signal-processing functions of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as being altered in many CNS diseases. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is noninvasive and provides high resolution and exquisite structural details, existing MRI methods are not capable of imaging the distribution of neurotransmitters in the brain. Functional MRI (fMRI) provides information based on changes in blood flow and metabolism, but lacks the sensitivity and specificity to probe these neurotransmitters. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRS), on the other hand, can detect glutamate signature groups using a variety of techniques. However, 1HMRS techniques require long acquisition times and have poor spatial resolution. In this presentation, we will describe a novel MRI technique for imaging glutamate (GluCEST) that provides markedly increased spatial and temporal resolution than 1HMRS. The method exploits the glutamate amine exchange saturation transfer to bulk water. Specifically, preliminary results of pH and concentration dependence of GluCEST in physiological phantoms and animal models will be described. Feasibility of obtaining GluCEST maps from human brain at 7 Tesla, as well as potential overlap form other brain metabolites will be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
March
2012
1:00pm
Anja van der Kolk
University Medical Center Utrecht

Visualizing the Intracranial Vessel Wall with 7.0 Tesla MRI

   (more ...)

Visualizing the Intracranial Vessel Wall with 7.0 Tesla MRI

   (hide ...)

Intracranial atherosclerosis is an important cause of TIA and ischemic stroke. With conventional angiography methods, like DSA or MRA, intracranial arterial pathology only becomes visible when it gives rise to luminal narrowing. More direct visualization of the intracranial arterial vessel wall itself could aid in faster diagnosis and treatment in these patients. A technique for visualizing intracranial arterial vessel walls with 7.0 Tesla MRI is presented, including (future) applications of this technique in the research and clinical practice setting, and validation of this technique using ex vivo material. All applications will be illustrated by patient examples. Preliminary results of the Intracranial Vessel wall Imaging (IVI) study will also be presented.

VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
March
2012
1:00pm
Saikat Sengupta
Vanderbilt University
Active Markers in MRI: Prospective Motion Correction and Continuous Field Monitoring   (more ...)
Active Markers in MRI: Prospective Motion Correction and Continuous Field Monitoring   (hide ...)

Nuclear magnetic resonance probes can provide real time, location specific, measurements of phase and magnitude variations in an MR experiment. Applications of NMR probes in imaging include catheter tracking, motion correction, magnetic gradient field monitoring and compensation for higher order field perturbations among others. This talk will focus on Prospective Motion correction and field monitoring at high field using multiple NMR probes ( or active markers). The workflow of real time data processing and head motion correction will be described along with preliminary results. A novel method of validating motion correction will be presented. In addition, early results of 0th, 1st and higher order field monitoring will also be presented
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
March
2012
1:00pm
Alex Maier
Vanderbilt University, Psychology Dept.
When fMRI and neurophysiology disagree: How does activity in the pri-mary visual cortex relate to perceptual experience?   (more ...)
When fMRI and neurophysiology disagree: How does activity in the pri-mary visual cortex relate to perceptual experience?   (hide ...)

The primary visual cortex (V1) is one of the best studied structures of the primate brain and much of its functional properties are well understood, but wheth-er its neural activity contributes to our conscious experience is a matter of long-standing debate. Using visual illusions such as perceptual suppression, in which a salient visual pattern escapes perception entirely, experimenters can ask if neural responses encode an observer’s perceptual interpretation or if they truthfully rep-resent the physical structure of a stimulus instead. Single neuron recordings in ma-caque monkeys as well as neuroimaging studies in humans have successfully ap-plied this paradigm to determine the extent to which activity in primary visual cor-tex reflects perceptual experience. However, while neurophysiological data from monkeys suggests that V1 neurons represent retinal input regardless of a subject’s perceptual state, human neuroimaging (fMRI) studies consistently demonstrate the presence of a strong perceptual signal. To understand the basis of this discrepancy, and to compare V1 signals di-rectly during perceptual suppression, we conducted fMRI experiments and neuronal recordings in monkeys that were trained to indicate their perception during this visual illusion. Under conditions in which a stimulus was present but rendered per-ceptually invisible, we found a sharp divergence between single neuron responses and the hemodynamic fMRI responses in V1, resolving previously discrepant results. Yet, we also found a direct correlate of the perception-related fMRI response in the so-called local field potential (LFP), which might signify the presence of an unknown neural mechanism that correlates with the subject’s perceptual state. We have started to investigate the cellular basis of this signal by converting LFP into a meas-ure of current flow across cellular membranes for the entire laminar structure of the cortical sheet. Using this technique, we have found a strong functional division be-tween the upper and lower layers of V1, suggesting selective modulation by intrinsic connections, other cortical areas and subcortical structures, respectively. These findings, taken together, suggest that the perceptual outcome of visual stimulation is defined by a dynamic network spanning multiple cortical areas, in-cluding V1. Future work will determine the neural dynamics of inter-areal interac-tions underlying conscious perceptual experience.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
March
2012
1:00pm
Daniel Reich
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Cancelled
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
30
March
2012
1:00pm
Olaf Sporns
Indiana University
Discovering the Human Connectome   (more ...)
Discovering the Human Connectome   (hide ...)

Recent advances in network science have greatly increased our understanding of the structure and function of many networked systems, ranging from transportation networks, to social networks, the internet, ecosystems, and biochemical and gene transcription pathways. Network approaches are also increasingly applied to the brain, at several levels of scale from cells to entire brain systems. We now know that brain networks exhibit a number of characteristic topological features, including small-world attributes, modularity and hubs. I will review recent work on how complex brain networks are organized, and how their structural topology constrains and shapes their capacity to process and integrate information. Particular emphasis will be on the large-scale structure and neural dynamics of the human brain. Reference: Sporns O (2011) Networks of the Brain. MIT Press.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
April
2012
1:00pm
Christian Eusemann
Seimens Medical Systems
Recent advances in the field of Computed Tomography   (more ...)
Recent advances in the field of Computed Tomography   (hide ...)

Over the past 5 years, Computed Tomography (CT) has seen tremendous advances in both hardware and software. These changes not only improved scanning capabilities and radiation dose level, but made CT a viable research tool. This presentation will provide an overview about key technological advances and their impact on research, clinical utility, and patients. Specific topics will include new scanning capabilities, individualized scanning, dual energy CT, functional CT, and general dose reduction. The presentation will also illustrate how all of these topics can be combined to improve specific clinical tasks using the example cardiac CT.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
April
2012
1:00pm
Founder Series Lecture
Daniel Sodickson
NYU
Unexpected Tomography: New Coils, New Computations, and New Contrast for MRI
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
April
2012
1:00pm
Gary Sulikowski
Vanderbilt University
Organic Synthesis Enabling Studies in Chemical Biology   (more ...)
Organic Synthesis Enabling Studies in Chemical Biology   (hide ...)

Organic synthesis has advanced to the point where essentially any compound structure that can be drawn can be prepared given appropriate resources and labor. However, while complex natural products can be prepared by total synthesis accessing quantities of the target molecule and/or analogs by chemical synthesis alone is difficult. Mutasynthesis and chemobiosynthesis allow the support of biosynthetic machinery to produce novel analogs for biological investigation. In this lecture I will provide examples of this methodology and chemical synthesis in the study of cell cytotoxic macrolides.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
May
2012
1:00pm
Frank Shellock
University of Southern California
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
June
2012
1:00pm
Amanda Yunker
Vanderbilt University
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
September
2012
1:00pm
Deepti S. Vikram
Development of magnetic resonance techniques for biophysics applications: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for oxygen measurement and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) for MRI   (more ...)
Development of magnetic resonance techniques for biophysics applications: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for oxygen measurement and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) for MRI   (hide ...)

Magnetic resonance techniques play an important and irreplaceable role today for both biomedical research as well as clinical applications. This presentation will focus on the development of certain aspects of two magnetic resonance techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for oxygen measurement and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) for high field MRI applications. EPR spectroscopy and imaging, similar to MRI, has the capability to contribute to clinical applications. It is, currently, a widely used research technique to measure the concentration of oxygen in biological systems and has been used for applications in the fields of cancer research, heart disease and other pathological conditions that involve changes in oxygen content. The talk will include evaluating the temporal resolution of the technique for dynamic oxygen measurements. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recent MRI method to estimate the magnetic susceptibility tensor in the human brain. The method can yield important tissue information useful in evaluating pathophysiology relevant to degenerative neurological diseases. The susceptibility anisotropy information can also be used to determine and map the orientation of white matter fibers in the human brain. Further, the susceptibility tensor description can be used to explain the orientation dependence of phase and consequently the phase contrast obtained in MRI images. The experimental method involves acquisition using gradient-echo pulse sequences and post-processing of phase/frequency information for solving the inverse problem. The STI method is highly suitable at the high magnetic fields associated with clinical brain research in MRI.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
28
September
2012
1:00pm
Zhipeng Cao
Pennsylvania State University
Advances in Simulation and Thermography for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging   (more ...)
Advances in Simulation and Thermography for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging   (hide ...)

This presentation will include two major research directions in my Ph.D. The first part will include constructing an Bloch-based simulator with realistic electromagnetic fields for parallel MRI, and utilizing it for performance prediction of a 14 T MRI system planned in South Korea. The second part will be a reconstruction study based on compressed sensing to accelerate MR Proton Resonance Frequency (PRF) Shift temperature imaging process for high field RF safety monitoring.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
November
2012
1:00pm
Harold Swartz
The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
Clinical EPR: Opportunities and Challenges   (more ...)
Clinical EPR: Opportunities and Challenges   (hide ...)

The development and use of in vivo techniques for experimental applications of EPR in animals has been very successful and now has led to attractive clinical applications. This presentation provides an overview of the challenges, opportunities, and results as in vivo EPR is extended into use in human subjects. The most widespread clinical use is oximetry, where EPR can make repeated and accurate measurements of pO2 in tissues, which provides clinicians with information that bears directly on diagnosis and therapy, especially for oncology, peripheral vascular disease, and wound healing. The other area of importance in human subjects is the ability of in vivo EPR to measure clinically significant exposures to ionizing radiation ‘after-the-fact’, due to accidents, terrorism, or nuclear war. The unique capabilities of in vivo EPR to detect and characterize free radicals could be applied to measure free radical intermediates from drugs and oxidative processes, including measurements of nitric oxide. These unique capabilities, combined with the sensitivity of EPR spectra to the immediate environment (e.g. pH, molecular motion, charge), have resulted in productive applications in animals that may be adapted for use in humans.The most immediate clinical application, which has a reasonable probability of becoming a widely used clinical tool, is to repeatedly measure the pO2 in tumors. This unique capability could have effective applications in developing improved therapeutic approaches and in personalized medicine. An example of an improved therapeutic approach is to determine the effects of combined therapy such as antiangiogenesis therapy combined with radiation therapy, to determine the optimum timing for the two modalities. This could resolve the current paradoxes in attempts to apply this combination in human subjects. An example of personalized therapy is to determine if and when a subject responds to hyperoxic therapy aimed at enhancing the response of radiation therapy. Patients whose tumor pO2 would not be treated with this combined therapy while those that did respond could have their radiation therapy delivered at the optimum window of oxygenation observed in their tumor.A network of cooperating institutions is being developed using the clinical EPR spectrometer developed at Dartmouth. This instrument is being used for both preclinical studies and direct clinical applications aimed at improving therapeutic efficacy.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
January
2013
1:00pm
Eduard Chekmenev
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
January
2013
1:00pm
Brian Welch
Vanderbilt University
Brown Adipose Tissue Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging   (more ...)
Brown Adipose Tissue Quantification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging   (hide ...)

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue known to be present in many small mammals and human infants. In human subjects, BAT is believed to diminish with age and be essentially undetectable in adults. However, recent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest that small but metabolically significant amounts of BAT persist into adulthood. These studies further suggest an inverse relationship between BAT and obesity, although it remains unclear whether reduced BAT amount and/or activity promotes or results from obesity. The objective of this research is to develop and validate MRI methods for characterizing human BAT, with a focus on differentiating between BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) under basal and activated conditions. The current imaging method for differentiating BAT and WAT employs a combination of 18F-FDG PET and x-ray computed tomography (CT), which requires an undesirable radiation dose. This work is therefore important in developing MRI methods that will replace the current PET-CT methods and enable the study of BAT in many interesting cohorts of human subjects in longitudinal studies without radiation concerns.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
January
2013
1:00pm
Charles Manning
Vanderbilt University
Probes for Molecular Imaging of Cancer
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
February
2013
1:00pm
Moritz Zeiss
German Cancer Research Center
From Spin-lock to Hyper-CEST - principles and application of chemical exchange saturation transfer for cancer research
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
February
2013
1:00pm
Oliver McIntyre
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
February
2013
1:00pm
Hunsuk Shim
Emory University School of Medicine
Coping with Clinical Unmet Needs using Advanced PET & MRSI (1. PET tracer development to detect the metastatic potential; 2. High resolution volumetric MR spectroscopic imaging for brain tumor management)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
February
2013
1:00pm
Ryan Robinson
Vanderbilt University
What I learned as a Philips Clinical Scientist
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
March
2013
1:00pm
Carissa Cascio
Vanderbilt University
The Role of Affective Circuits in Sensory and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
March
2013
1:00pm
Lori Jordan
Vanderbilt University
Pediatric Stroke: What are the Key Questions that Advanced Neuroimaging Can Help Answer?
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
March
2013
1:00pm
Arthur C. Fleischer
Vanderbilt University
Improved Sonographic Techniques for Ovarian Cancer Detection
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
March
2013
1:00pm
Houchun Harry Hu
Children's Hospital Los Angeles, The Saban Research Institute
Brown Adipose Tissue – Recent Developments, Imaging, and Implications in Human Physiology   (more ...)
Brown Adipose Tissue – Recent Developments, Imaging, and Implications in Human Physiology   (hide ...)

Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous resurgence in scientific interest towards brown adipose tissue (BAT). Several hundred original research and review articles have been published uncovering the cell biology and physiological roles of BAT in both animals and humans. The existence of BAT in mammals and the tissue’s primary role as an organ responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis has been recognized for over half a century. While BAT was previously thought to only exist in humans during fetal growth, infancy, and childhood development, the unequivocal finding of BAT in adults with PET/CT imaging in recent years has motivated investigators to further probe the tissue’s implications in many aspects of human physiology, including metabolism and energy balance, obesity, and musculoskeletal development. In the first part of my presentation, I will review historical findings of BAT and summarize recent knowledge gained from PET/CT imaging in both animals and humans. While PET/CT remains the modality of choice for imaging BAT in adults, MRI is emerging as a viable alternative due to its lack of ionizing radiation and more importantly its greater applicability in studying healthy cohorts, including infants and children. In the second part of my presentation, I will discuss in detail both past and recent research efforts to characterize BAT morphology and metabolic activity with proton spectroscopy and chemical-shift-based water-fat MRI techniques. I will present a logical series of experiments and provide illustrative examples from mice and adult humans, as well as recent clinical data gathered at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles in infants, children, and teenagers. I will conclude with an outlook on future research and comment briefly on other potential MR strategies for characterizing BAT.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
29
March
2013
1:00pm
Feliks Kogan
University of Pennsylvania
Endogenous Amine Proton Exchange Based MRI and Their Applications
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
05
April
2013
1:00pm
Daniel Claussen
Vanderbilt University
Mesocorticolimbic function in Parkinson Disease
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
12
April
2013
1:00pm
Amanda Yunker
Vanderbilt University
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
19
April
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar: ISMRM
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
26
April
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar: ISMRM
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
May
2013
1:00pm
Hakmook Kang
Vanderbilt University
Controlling Global Error Rates in fMRI Data Analysis   (more ...)
Controlling Global Error Rates in fMRI Data Analysis   (hide ...)

Standard fMRI analyses use a voxel based linear regression model after applying spatial smoothing and common approaches to adjust for the multiple testing problem in fMRI include random field theory (RFT), and false discovery rate (FDR). The primary limitation of these approaches is that they are still conservative in finding positive voxels, even though they are known to be less conservative than the Bonferroni correction. Moreover, the probability of a false positive is fixed at a certain level (e.g., 0.05) and does not change at all regardless of the amount of data. To overcome these two main disadvantages of current approaches, we propose an approach based on likelihood ratio at each voxel, which allows the probabilities of both false positive and negative results to converge to zero as the sample size grows. The characteristics of this approach are illustrated via simulation study and real data analysis.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
May
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar: Commencement
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
May
2013
1:00pm
Richard Dortch
Vanderbilt University
What can quantitative MRI tell us about the pathophysiology of inherited neuropathies?   (more ...)
What can quantitative MRI tell us about the pathophysiology of inherited neuropathies?   (hide ...)

The overall goal of our research is to develop and validate a quantitative, multi-parametric [diffusion, relaxometry, magnetization transfer (MT)] set of MRI techniques for the assessment of pathological and functional changes accompanying human peripheral neuropathy in vivo. Our initial focus has been on the development of a robust, clinically feasible MT ratio (MTR) imaging sequence to probe myelin content changes in the sciatic nerve of patients with inherited neuropathies, or Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. In this talk, I will discuss: i) our methods for addressing the technical challenges (e.g., nonrigid motion, B1 inhomogeneities) associated with MTR imaging of the sciatic nerve in vivo, and ii) our initial findings in primary demyelinating (CMT1A) and axonal (CMT2) cohorts. Finally, I will discuss some of the limitations of MTR imaging in these cohorts and our plans moving forward.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
May
2013
1:00pm
Jeffry Nyman
Vanderbilt University
Imaging Fracture Resistance
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
31
May
2013
1:00pm
Founder Series Lecture
Fahmeed Hyder
Yale School of Medicine
Quantitative basis for neuroimaging of cortical laminae with calibrated fMRI   (more ...)
Quantitative basis for neuroimaging of cortical laminae with calibrated fMRI   (hide ...)

Layer-specific neurophysiologic, hemodynamic, and metabolic measurements are needed to interpret high-resolution fMRI data in the cerebral cortex. We examined how neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings vary vertically in the rat’s somatosensory cortex. During sensory stimulation we measured dynamic layer-specific responses of (LFP) and multi-unit activity (MUA) as well as blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, blood volume (CBV) and blood flow (CBF) and which in turn were used to calculate changes in oxidative metabolism (CMRO2) with calibrated fMRI. Both BOLD and CBV decreased from superficial to deep laminae, but these responses were not well correlated with either layer-specific LFP or MUA. However CBF was stable across laminae similar to LFP. But CMRO2 and MUA varied across cortex in a correlated manner and both were reduced in superficial lamina. These results lay the framework for quantitative neuroimaging across cortical laminae with calibrated fMRI methods.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
September
2013
1:00pm
Jouke Smink, M.S.
Clinical Scientist MR-Electrophysciology and MR-Interventions - Philips Healthcare
MRI guided interventions in oncology and electrophysiology   (more ...)
MRI guided interventions in oncology and electrophysiology   (hide ...)

MRI guided interventions has been a research topic for more than 15 years. Still, the promised breakthrough in the clinic is yet to come. In this talk results with a new dedicated interventional MRI suite will be presented. This iSuite is developed as a standalone application similar to MR-Hifu. Research collaborations with two sites has led to dedicated applications in electrophysiology and oncology. MR-EP is being developed together with King�s College London. Also the collaboration with catheter startup company IMRICOR has added the integration of MR-safe active catheters, EP mapping and real-time MR. The animal studies so far are preceding the first-in-man which is planned for this year. The University of Magdeburg is using their Panorama HFO open scanner and the iSuite on a daily basis for their oncology work. The iSuite is used during a.o. biopsies, HDR brachytherapy and spinal injections for pain therapy.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
September
2013
1:00pm
Charles Caskey
Vanderbilt University
Ultrasonic molecular imaging and image-guided therapy   (more ...)
Ultrasonic molecular imaging and image-guided therapy   (hide ...)

Ultrasound has traditionally been a diagnostic as well as therapeutic modality due to its ability to create images as well as provide noninvasive localized heating, ablation, and mechanical agitation within the body. Recent innovations have expanded the use of ultrasound to areas such as molecular imaging and image-guided therapy. These advancements were enabled by improved technology and also by combining ultrasound with other imaging modalities and disciplines. For example, targeted imaging of the vasculature can be achieved by injecting micron-sized, encapsulated bubbles (microbubbles) with ligands that specifically bind to vascular integrins such as avb3. I will discuss research that addresses challenges in targeted ultrasonic imaging, including achieving high contrast-to-tissue ratios, selectively imaging targeted microbubbles, and generating 3D maps of targeted vasculature. Since these microbubble contrast agents can also locally enhance vascular permeability under specific ultrasound conditions, they can act as therapeutic agents as well. I will also introduce research about using ultrasound contrast to deliver drugs beyond the vasculature and present results where we delivered chemotherapeutics beyond the blood brain barrier to treat a murine model of metastatic melanoma. Finally, I will cover ultrasound- and MR-based thermometry, which provide feedback and guidance for image-guided therapeutic heating procedures, such as uterine fibroid ablation, cancer ablation, or heat-based immunomodulation. With targeted imaging capabilities, microbubble-based drug delivery, and the ability to apply and monitor hyperthermia, ultrasound continues to occupy a unique role in image-guided therapy.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
September
2013
1:00pm
Adam Anderson
Vanderbilt University
Imaging Brain Tissue
Microstructure and Connectivity
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
September
2013
1:00pm
Christoph Juchem
Yale University

Dynamic Multi-Coil Shimming of Mouse, Rat and Human Brain

   (more ...)

Dynamic Multi-Coil Shimming of Mouse, Rat and Human Brain

   (hide ...)

MR imaging and spectroscopy allow the non-invasive measurement of brain function and physiology, but excellent B0 magnetic field homogeneity is required for meaningful results. The correction of static magnetic field imperfections, so-called B0 shimming, is particularly demanding in the brain where air-tissue interfaces create complex and strong distortions.

In my talk, I will present a novel technique for magnetic field modeling and shimming that is based on the combination of fields generated by a matrix of small, generic coils. This multi-coil (MC) approach enables the accurate generation of simple and complex magnetic field shapes in a flexible fashion. Dynamic MC shimming outperforms conventional shimming based on spherical harmonic (SH) functions and provides unrivaled magnetic field homogeneity in mouse, rat and human brain. I will discuss the methodological aspects of MC shimming and demonstrate its benefits for gradient-echo EPI and fMRI. Along with the efficiency gains of MC shimming compared to SH approaches, the MC concept has the potential to 1) replace conventional shim systems that are based on sets of dedicated SH coils and 2) allow optimal object-specific shim solutions similar to object-specific RF coils.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
October
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
October
2013
1:00pm
Daniel Gochberg
Vanderbilt University
Imaging Magnetization Exchange
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
October
2013
1:00pm
Limin Chen
Vanderbilt University
Longitudinal MRI Assessments of Spinal Cord Injury and Brain Plasticity in Squirrel Monkeys   (more ...)
Longitudinal MRI Assessments of Spinal Cord Injury and Brain Plasticity in Squirrel Monkeys   (hide ...)

Spinal cord injuries have devastating consequences for patients, whose motor and/or sensory functions are often severely impaired. Over time, SCI patients can regain some of their lost functions, although the mechanisms mediating these recoveries are not completely understood. The existing literature suggests that both nerve fiber sprouting at the injured spinal cord site and brain plastic changes play crucial roles for the recovery of various sensory functions. To test these hypotheses, the ability to assess longitudinally the functional recovery at both spinal cord and brain levels is essential. In my talk, I will describe our recent team efforts on developing quantitative MRI methods for assessing longitudinally the progression of spinal cord injury and brain plasticity in squirrel monkeys at 9.4T. These new developments will allows us to understand how injured spinal cord tissue heals on its own, how brain adapts following sensory inputs disruption, and how the changes at spinal cord and brain may contribute to the behavioral recovery after spinal cord injury.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
October
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
November
2013
1:00pm
Founder Series Lecture -- Seong-Gi Kim, Ph.D.
Neuroimaging Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh
Chemical Exchange Sensitive MRI: Signal sources and sensitivity
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
November
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
November
2013
1:00pm
Richard Abramson, M.D.
Vanderbilt University
Assessing response to cancer treatment: challenges at the imaging-oncology interface   (more ...)
Assessing response to cancer treatment: challenges at the imaging-oncology interface   (hide ...)

Assessing response to treatment is a fundamental component of cancer research and clinical care. This presentation will review the evolution of imaging-based cancer treatment response assessment and its application in the research and clinical settings. A critical appraisal of current tumor size-based response assessment techniques will be presented, with a focus on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). I will explore the landscape of current attempts to move beyond RECIST, and I will discuss challenges for clinical translation of new techniques.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
November
2013
1:00pm
Dr. Ronald C. Walker
Vanderbilt University
68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT Imaging of Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules and Lung Cancer
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
December
2013
1:00pm
Bruce Damon, PhD
Vanderbilt University
RCR Presentation: Reviewing a Scientific Manuscript   (more ...)
RCR Presentation: Reviewing a Scientific Manuscript   (hide ...)

You can download the presentation slides via this link
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
December
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
December
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
December
2013
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
January
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
January
2014
1:00pm
Laurie Cutting, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
From Words to Text: Behavioral and Neurobiological Correlates of Reading
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
January
2014
1:00pm
Jon-Kar Zubieta, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
PET Molecular Imaging as a Neuroscience Tool
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
January
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
31
January
2014
1:00pm
Founder Series Lecture -- Lawrence Wald, Ph.D.
Massachusetts General Hospital
New Directions for Brain MRI Hardware
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
February
2014
1:00pm
Victoria Morgan, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Multimodal MRI in Sports Concussion - Early Results
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
14
February
2014
1:00pm
Feng Wang, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Quantitative MRI in Mouse Kidney at 7T
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
21
February
2014
1:00pm
Crystal Coolbaugh, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Personalized Physical Activity Prescription: Activity Monitor Development & Applications   (more ...)
Personalized Physical Activity Prescription: Activity Monitor Development & Applications   (hide ...)

For almost 20 years, public health organizations have published numerous evidence-based reports touting the benefits of physical activity along with recommendations to achieve these health gains. However, these guidelines have been ineffective, and the percentage of inactive American adults has remained alarmingly high. Widespread access to technology has contributed to physical inactivity levels, but these same technology advances provide the means for an objective and personalized approach to physical activity promotion to counter these trends. In this talk, I will describe 1) the development of a monitor to quantify physical activity and physiological responses, 2) the application of this device to explore the relationships between physical activity exposure, health outcomes, and musculoskeletal injuries, and 3) the integration of monitor data into a dynamic web-based application to personalize physical activity prescription.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
28
February
2014
1:00pm
Ron Cowan, M.D., Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Neuroimaging in MDMA (ecstasy) users: evidence for persisting neurotoxicity
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
March
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar (Spring Break)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
14
March
2014
1:00pm
Dan Alexander, Ph.D.
University College of London, Centre for Medical Image Computing
Microstructure imaging with diffusion MRI   (more ...)
Microstructure imaging with diffusion MRI   (hide ...)

My talk will give an overview of the research in my group in developing microstructure imaging techniques using MRI and other activities. The aim of microstructure imaging is to estimate and map histological features of tissue non-invasively. Diffusion MRI sensitises the MR signal to the dispersion of water arising from diffusion. It is a cornerstone of microstructure imaging, because it gives unique sensitivity to the cellular architecture of tissue, which determines the pattern of water dispersion. Other MR modalities, such as relaxometry, magnetisation transfer, and susceptibility imaging can also contribute. I will talk about the work we have done towards development of the biophysical models that underpin parameter estimation (Panagiotaki et al Neuroimage 2012; Ferizi et al MRM 2014); the design of imaging sequences and protocols that provide and maximise sensitivity (Alexander MRM 2008; Drobnjak et al JMR 2010); specific techniques that emerge such as ActiveAx (Alexander et al Neuroimage 2010; Zhang et al Neuroimage 2011) and NODDI (Zhang et al Neuroimage 2012) for neuroimaging, and VERDICT (Panagiotaki et al Cancer Research 2014) for cancer imaging; and their validation and application. I will also mention more recent work on the development of computational models for disease progression with application in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological conditions; see (Fonteijn et al Neuroimage 2012).
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
21
March
2014
1:00pm
Peter Hardy
University of Kentucky
Using Convection Enhanced Delivery to Treat Neurodegenerative Disease
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
28
March
2014
1:00pm
Founder Series Lecture
Samuel Achilefu, Ph.D.
Washington University
Molecular Fluorescence Image-Guided Cancer Resection: From Bench to Bedside
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
April
2014
1:00pm
Melissa Skala, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University Optics
Cellular-Level Metabolic Imaging to Predict Anti-Cancer Drug Response
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
April
2014
1:00pm
Carlos Faraco, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Stratifying Stroke Risk in Patients with Intracranial Stenosis using Hemodynamic Imaging   (more ...)
Stratifying Stroke Risk in Patients with Intracranial Stenosis using Hemodynamic Imaging   (hide ...)

Patients with ischemic steno-occlusive disease are at high risk of recurrent stroke, but the correct treatment for these patients is currently unclear. Current standard practice for evaluating stroke risk in such patients is focused on angiographic imaging which is used to visualize stenosis severity. To enhance stratification of stroke risk and guide treatment, it would be of equal importance to assess cerebral hemodynamics and vascular compliance. Currently, we have implemented a clinical protocol at VUMC which uses hemodynamic imaging modalities, such as blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging, in conjunction with a hypercarbic hyperoxic gas challenge to assess cerebrovascular reactivity. In this talk I will demonstrate how we have successfully used this protocol to assess cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with intracranial stenosis, and how these methods are particularly sensitive to lateralizing disease. Additionally, I will show how hypercarbic hyperoxic BOLD and ASL can be used to longitudinally monitor the success of cerebral reperfusion following cerebral revascularization surgery in a sub-population of patients with an intracranial stenosis of unknown etiology, referred to as Moyamoya disease. Lastly, I will demonstrate how these methods have allowed us to better understand the origins of variations in the BOLD signal.

VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
April
2014
1:00pm
Chunming Li
University of Pennsylvania
Image Segmentation and Related Issues in
Medical Imaging
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
April
2014
1:00pm
Gregor Neuert, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Quantitative imaging approaches in signaling and regulation of the "dark matter" of the genome
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
May
2014
1:00pm
Bob Galloway, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Translating Innovation, Innovating Translation
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
May
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar (ISMRM)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
May
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar (ISMRM)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
May
2014
1:00pm
Kathy Ferrera, Ph.D.
UC Davis, BME
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
August
2014
1:00pm
Rachelle Crescenzi
University of Pennsylvania
CEST MRI
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
12
September
2014
1:00pm
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
19
September
2014
1:00pm
Dave Piston
Vanderbilt University
Imaging the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Insulin Secretion
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
26
September
2014
1:00pm
Michael Miga
Vanderbilt University
Biophysical Model-Embedded Systems for Therapeutic and Imaging Applications   (more ...)
Biophysical Model-Embedded Systems for Therapeutic and Imaging Applications   (hide ...)

Often within the medical community, the translation of computational biophysical models for use in therapeutic and imaging applications has been limited due to complexity, speed, or insufficient understanding of constitutive behavior. As a result, the benefits from these powerful approaches has been somewhat diminished and adoption has been inhibited. However, with the continued improvements in computing and instrumentation, the ability to translate complex models using large systems of equations from predictive roles to ones that are more integrated within therapeutic and novel imaging frameworks is becoming a rapid reality. Model-embedded systems designed to enable novel soft-tissue quantitative imaging and surgical applications are an excellent example of these efforts. The paradigm suggested in our work is that intervention itself is as patient-specific as the data that guides. More specifically, we assert that patient-specific therapies are not limited to being guided by the collection of patient-specific data (e.g. imaging, biomarkers, physiological variables, etc.) but rather they represent a dynamic patient-specific relationship between presentation, measurement technology, computation, and therapeutic approach. This is a paradigm that challenges convention and shifts patient care to diverse collaborative teams whereby patients, engineers, scientists, and physicians select the optimal combination of technologies to treat based on presentation and therapeutic goals. In this talk, examples of these dynamic subject-specific characterization and therapeutic frameworks will be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
October
2014
1:00pm
Xiaoping Hu
Emory Unversity
Characterizing the Not-so-resting State of the Brain with fMRI   (more ...)
Characterizing the Not-so-resting State of the Brain with fMRI   (hide ...)

Resting state fMRI has become a widely used approach in assessing functional connectivity of the brain. To date, while most studies have assumed the resting state brain activity to be stationary, there is general consensus that it is non-stationary and dynamic. In the past few years, we have developed several approaches to characterize the dynamics in resting-state fMRI data and have found that 1) the resting-state hops between a number of quasistationary states and 2) the characteristics of these states and transitions between them can provide valuable measures of the brain. In addition, the different states can be considered as stationary for brain parcellation, providing more reproducible and more detailed segmentations. In this talk, I will describe the methods used to identify and characterize these states, the spatiotemporal features of these states and the application of state-specific parcellation to the segmentation of thalamus.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
October
2014
1:00pm
Robert Barry
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
October
2014
1:00pm
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
October
2014
1:00pm
Brett Byram
Vanderbilt University
Wait! You can see something in that ultrasound image?    (more ...)
Wait! You can see something in that ultrasound image?    (hide ...)

Ultrasound has experienced a recent explosion of new advances and techniques, and many of these techniques are already making their way into clinical practice. Despite the opportunity these advances provide, ultrasound exams still commonly result in suboptimal images or fail completely. (16-98% failure rate depending on the application). Methods exist to improve image quality, but they are not compatible with most of the new advances. In the BEAM Lab, we are developing strategies to improve image-quality that are consistent with both B-Mode and advanced ultrasound methods. We are particularly interested in doing this in ways that preserve image features that physicians and sonographers are trained to observe. In my talk I?ll briefly review some of the recent advances in ultrasound. Then I?ll describe how we?re using concepts from big data and new aperture-domain models of ultrasound propagation to improve ultrasound image quality. In my remaining time I?ll review some of the BEAM labs other work.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Thursday
30
October
2014
1:00pm
Joel Garbow
Washington University St. Louis
MRI at the Intersection of Basic and Clinical Science: Radiation Necrosis, Placental Function, and the Reverend Bayes
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
November
2014
1:00pm
Charles Coffey
Vanderbilt University
Clinical Medical Physics Graduate Programs at Vanderbilt   (more ...)
Clinical Medical Physics Graduate Programs at Vanderbilt   (hide ...)

Medical Physics education and training at Vanderbilt dates back to the 1950's. Since 1998, a Master of Science in Clinical Medial Physics (Therapy Physics and Diagnostic Physics tracks) has been offered. In 2008, a Professional Doctorate (DMP) in Clinical Medical Physics was approved by the School of Medicine. Presently, MSMP (Master of Science in Medical Physics) and DMP (Professional Doctorate in Medical Physics) Degrees are offered within the School of Medicine Graduate Programs. This presentation will provide an update of the current curriculum and training requirements of both the MSMP and DMP degrees. Although the focus of the Clinical Medical Physics Program for the past 15 years has been professional medical physics education and training, Program faculty have as a near-future goal to partner with the Graduate School to create a Clinical Medical Physicist Scientist PhD specialty pathway within the Department of Physics and Astronomy.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, VUIIS Classroom (Room AA1119)
Friday
14
November
2014
1:00pm
Ed Mojahed
Vanderbilt University
3D Echo Planar Chemical Shift Imaging: potentials and limitations   (more ...)
3D Echo Planar Chemical Shift Imaging: potentials and limitations   (hide ...)

585,720 (35%) of 1,665,540 cancer patients are estimated to die in the US in 2014 (American Cancer Society). Routine monitoring by PET, X-Ray, and CT scans are hazardous and evaluating the disease is time consuming. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) have changed this routine significantly in the past few years. MRS can help with better understanding of tumor pathology, chemical compounds, and vascularization and it can even provide a predictive value for the treatment response and disease-free survival of patients (with some cancer subtypes) even before they start their treatment (Hattingen et al Neuroradiology 2008). Due to the fact that MRS studies are non-invasive and can provide vast amount of information about the disease, they can have a significant impact on patient's treatment choices, monitoring, prognosis, economics of their treatment plan, and the overall quality of life. Unfortunately, MRS is still not a common practice among the medical community. The three main reasons are as follows: First and far most is the fact that MRS acquisition is usually very time consuming. For a classic brain 1H 3D MRS with a spatial matrix of 20x18x10 with TR = 1000 ms, the scan time can be about 1 hour which is "practically" impossible. This is a more challenging issue for cancer patients who go through extensive chemotherapy and cannot tolerate long acquisition times of MRS or any other routine. Second, MR time is extremely expensive. Depending on the site, specific procedure, and strength of the magnetic field, a simple MR study can cost somewhere between 1000 to 3500 dollars (Economics of MRI report). Finally, non-standardized MRS acquisitions and analysis protocols could create havoc in interpretation and usefulness of the technique. MRS scan parameters such as spatial resolution and echo times have been used non-uniformly in variety of different combinations in research and clinical studies. These parameters must be chosen with utmost care as they have direct impact on signal to noise ratio, quantification of the metabolites, and an overall interpretation of the results. In addition, any MR center has to have experts who could accurately and reliably setup, acquire, and analyze the spectroscopy procedures. For the reasons said, having a method that could shorten the length of an MRS scan, reduce the cost, and potentially become a sensible routine in clinical practice is of a huge value. 3D Echo Planar Chemical Shift Imaging (3D EPSI) is a fast MRS technique that can achieve all that was mentioned above. Relative to an hour that takes for a classic 3D CSI brain scan (with above parameters), 3D EPSI could acquire the same sequence in 3 minute, of course with some limitations. This talk will give an overview of 3D EPSI pulse sequence design, application, limitations, as well as experiments with non-water suppressed 3D EPSI data analyzed in FSL.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
21
November
2014
1:00pm
Swati Rane
Vanderbilt University
Understanding Parkinson's pathology with MRI   (more ...)
Understanding Parkinson's pathology with MRI   (hide ...)

The progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by neurodegenerative changes in the basal ganglia and cortex, correlating with advancing motor and cognitive deficits. In this study, we sought to determine if structural changes in the cortex, measured by cortical thickness, mirror the proposed pathophysiologic model of cortical PD progression. We assessed if PD patients with well-defined motor phenotypes are distinguished by patterns of cortical atrophy. We calculated rates of cortical atrophy as a function of increasing age and advancing disease duration. Patients with predominant gait symptoms had atrophy in cortical regions susceptible to advancing disease. We detected early orbitofrontal and insular changes, followed by widespread posterior cortical atrophy is a PD-specific pattern, which should allow us to guide development of future biomarkers quantifying disease severity and progression. This study is our first attempt to understand PD progression in the cortex.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
28
November
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar (Thanksgiving)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
05
December
2014
1:00pm
Chad Quarles
Vanderbilt University
Probing the Microstructural and Vascular Features of Brain Tumors   (more ...)
Probing the Microstructural and Vascular Features of Brain Tumors   (hide ...)

With advanced contrast agent based MRI methods multiple physiologic and microstructural features of brain tumors can be simultaneously assessed. In this presentation I will discuss the pre-clinical and clinical development of these methods, their use in evaluating brain tumor treatment response and their translation into clinical practice.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
12
December
2014
1:00pm
Jeff Carr
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
19
December
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar (Winter Break)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
26
December
2014
1:00pm
No Seminar (Winter Break)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
January
2015
1:00pm
Arthur Fleischer, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Clinical Applications of Contrast Enhanced Sonography   (more ...)
Clinical Applications of Contrast Enhanced Sonography   (hide ...)

This overview will cover the clinical applications of contrast enhanced sonography including liver lesion, renal mass, and ovarian mass diagnosis, potential application of targeted microbubbles and therapeutic applications.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
January
2015
1:00pm
Bruce Damon, PhD
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
January
2015
1:00pm
Seth Smith, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Spinal Cord Imaging in 2015: Is it important?   (more ...)
Spinal Cord Imaging in 2015: Is it important?   (hide ...)

Developments in spinal cord MRI have lagged behind similar developments in the brain for a variety of reasons. Some of these reasons are related more to the thought process of MRI development rather than pragmatic or sequence design hurdles. For example, expecting well-conceived and thoroughly studied brain MRI sequences to perform equally well in the thoracic spinal cord at the level of the heart offers an opportunity for disappointment. Alternatively, the demands for high-resolution complicate the challenge of spinal cord imaging, especially as it pertains to quantitative MRI. Clinically, the spinal cord 1) is thought/shown to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases, 2) is one of the most relevant targets for understanding neurodegenerative disease genesis and evolution, 3) is an approachable target for disease modifying therapies or intervention, 4) is one of the most important structures in providing quality of life functions (walking, standing, bowel/bladder function, sexual function), and 5) when damaged, the results are immediately and potentially, permanently manifest. It is clear that developing novel MRI methods to assess these aspects of spinal cord damage is important to the clinical community, but it is less clear how to appropriately achieve this. The goal of my presentation is to discuss what the spinal cord is, what it does, how it is clinically assessed, and the role it plays in diseases of the central nervous system. I will also provide my take on the existing MRI knowledge and technique gaps/challenges, and end with a discussion of what are some of the new imaging methods that are available that could provide an opportunity for an improved understanding of spinal cord disease and damage.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
February
2015
1:00pm
Manus Donahue, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Quantitative perfusion and oxygen extraction measures in the clinic   (more ...)
Quantitative perfusion and oxygen extraction measures in the clinic   (hide ...)

My work has focused on development and application of new imaging approaches for studying brain function in health and disease. These methods are sensitive to physiological parameters such as cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, pH, oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, parameters that may adjust prior to symptom expression and irreversible tissue damage in many diseases. We have added these methods to existing clinical imaging protocols at Vanderbilt and elsewhere to investigate functional changes in brain tumors, steno-occlusive carotid artery disease, Alzheimer's disease, acute ischemic stroke, post-stroke plasticity, Moyamoya disease and multiple sclerosis. During this talk, I will present an overview of how these methods work, and also how they are being used in clinical trials at Vanderbilt.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
February
2015
1:00pm
Dylan Burnette, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Studying actomyosin contractile systems with super-resolution microscopy   (more ...)
Studying actomyosin contractile systems with super-resolution microscopy   (hide ...)

The generation of contractile forces inside a cell is a major driver of processes such as cell migration, cell division. These contractile forces are generated by the molecular motor non-muscle myosin II (NMII). NMII is a hexamer consisting of 2 heavy chains, 2 essential light chains, and 2 regulatory light chains. A NMII hexamer can interact with other myosin II hexamers via their heavy chains, to form a bipolar filament. In this filament, the N-terminal motor domains are pointed in opposite directions, with the C-terminal coiled-coil rod domains linking the two molecules. In this orientation, NMII can grab onto and contract anti-parallel actin filaments, resulting in force generation. NMII filament formation has been well characterized, and importantly, only 15-30 NMII hexamers may associate with each other before steric hindrance blocks addition of more hexamers. How NMII filaments form into large arrays of adjacent filaments, referred to as stacks capable of generating increasing amounts of force however, is much less well understood. This is partly due to the fact that NMII filaments are diffraction limited, and thus little dynamic information can be gleamed from conventional microscopy. Here, we use a classic model of mesenchymal migration, U2OS cells, combined with structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which allows us to resolve the motor and rod domains of NMII, to show how stacks arise. We first noticed that NMII filaments are found in a number of different organizations in fixed cells at their leading edge. We found NMII filaments in what we are referring to as 2 motor groups, 3 motor groups, 4 motor groups, and more than 4 motor groups organization, based on the number of motor domain groups we can resolve with SIM. We hypothesized that individual NMII hexamers could be walking along actin filaments and physically pulling themselves out of an initial filament to expand into a stack. To probe this hypothesis, we turned to live cell SIM, which revealed that NMII filaments were indeed expanding from an initial 2 motor filament, with asymmetric growth on one side of the filament, followed by temporally by growth on the opposite side of the filament. We thus sought to confirm this observation by perturbing the system with pharmacological agents. We treated cells with increasing amounts of blebbistatin ? a specific and potent inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity? and quantified the change in NMII filament organization vs untreated cells. We have seen a decrease in the percent of NMII species in the 3 motor, 4 motor, and 4+ motor group organizations in blebbistatin treated cells. Interestingly however, we also noticed that even in saturating concentrations of blebbistatin (i.e., 50 ?m) filament formation seems unperturbed. This has led us to hypothesize that NMII stack formation (i.e., 4 motor and 4+ motor group organizations) is more sensitive than filament formation (i.e., 2 motor group) to changes in myosin II ATPase activity.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
February
2015
1:00pm
Visar Belegu, PhD
John Hopkins University
Structural and functional imaging in patients with chronic spinal cord injury   (more ...)
Structural and functional imaging in patients with chronic spinal cord injury   (hide ...)

Spinal cord is a conduit for the exchange of information between the brain and the body, and damage to specific spinal cord tracts disrupts conduction of sensory and motor signals across the lesion epicenter. Noninvasive visualization of these tracts with imaging techniques that are sensitive to the integrity of the spinal cord tissue has been achieved with some success. Particularly, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)- and magnetization transfer (MT)-derived quantities have shown promise in assessing tissue health in the central nervous system. However, there are significant technical challenges (size, low signal-to-noise, and motion) in using quantitative MRI methods to assess spinal cord integrity, and a spinal cord injury, traumatic or non-traumatic in etiology, adds to these challenges. We are using DTI-derived parameters (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and parallel and perpendicular eigenvalues), and MT-weighted signal intensity relative to cerebrospinal fluid (MTCSF) to assess tract specific integrity patients that are living with a chronic spinal cord injury; in addition, we are correlating these imaging parameters with neurological function as defined by the motor and sensory components of the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS). Furthermore, we aim to understand the salient cortical changes that occur as a consequence to spinal cord injury as well as in response to therapeutic interventions. To accomplish this, we are utilizing resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) since it allows us to study functional networks using an identical protocol for all patients, regardless of cognitive or physical limitations. Functional connectivity between sensorimotor and visual networks is particularly interesting in this regard as it seems to be important in neurological recovery. Our long-term goal is to understand the relationship between the structural and functional noninvasive imaging parameters and neurological function, and using these parameters to optimize functional recovery.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
March
2015
1:00pm
Christian Beaulieu, PhD
University of Alberta
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
March
2015
1:00pm
Alex Smith
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
March
2015
1:00pm
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
April
2015
1:00pm
Jorge Gamboa
Vanderbilt University
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease   (more ...)
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease   (hide ...)

There is strong evidence that oxidative stress and inflammation correlate with morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be the cause of both oxidative stress and inflammation, which also could lead to protein and energy wasting in ESRD. Previous studies have shown that patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis exhibit mitochondrial abnormalities in peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells and ultra-structural abnormalities in skeletal muscle compared to healthy individuals. We also have previously shown that patients with ESRD present lower mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lower mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle compared to healthy individuals. Methods and approaches to measure mitochondrial dysfunction in humans will be discussed, including 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which has been considered the ?gold standard? to measure mitochondrial function in vivo.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
April
2015
1:00pm
Todd Peterson, PhD
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
April
2015
1:00pm
Robert Ogg, PhD
St. Jude's Hospital
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
April
2015
1:00pm
David Smith, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Recent Developments in MRI Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Postprocessing   (more ...)
Recent Developments in MRI Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Postprocessing   (hide ...)

Cartesian MRI acquisitions and vanilla inverse FFT reconstructions are so 2006. I will discuss some new developments in MRI acquisitions, iterative reconstructions, and the postprocessing workflow. Topics will include our work in continuous moving table golden angle radial imaging, multiple instantaneous switchable scans, low-redundancy Cartesian imaging, sparse and low rank methods, and rapid postprocessing with open source, reproducible results.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
May
2015
1:00pm
Kim Butts, Ph.D.
Stanford University
MRgFUS in the Brain: From Ablation to Neuromodulation   (more ...)
MRgFUS in the Brain: From Ablation to Neuromodulation   (hide ...)

Ultrasound can be focused to a point deep in the brain through the intact skull, without damage to intervening tissues. This is being investigated in the treatment of essential tremor and other neurological disorders. Our work focuses on using beam simlulations for treatment planning, optimizing imaging methods such as MR thermometry for monitoring, MR-ARFI for targeting, and UTE MR for phase aberration correction, and investigating ultrasound-based neuromodulation without a temperature rise.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
May
2015
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
05
June
2015
12:00am
No Seminar until Fall 2015
Check back here for details!
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Thursday
25
June
2015
8:45am
VUIIS Retreat at Vanderbilt Student Law School
Sponsored by: Vanderbilt Medical Alumni Association
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
28
August
2015
1:00pm
Alfredo Rodriguez
Autonomouse Metropolitan University, Mexico
Cutoff-free travelling wave MR Imaging   (more ...)
Cutoff-free travelling wave MR Imaging   (hide ...)

The use of travelling waves has been successfully implemented to generate magnetic resonance images (MRI) at 7 T using whole-body systems. With this approach, samples with larger fields of view can be imaged using conventional RF coils and waveguides with different cross-sections. One of the significant limitations is the specific cutoff frequency, determined by the bore which can be higher than most Larmor frequencies commonly in use for MR imaging and spectroscopy today. To overcome this limitation a parallel-plate waveguide was employed because its cut-off frequency is zero for the lowest-order transverse magnetic mode so all frequencies can propagate. In this talk, we will review some of these recents results and discuss some possible further works.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
September
2015
1:00pm
Jack Noble
VU Electrical Engineering/VISE
Image analysis-based guidance and decision support for cochlear implant interventions   (more ...)
Image analysis-based guidance and decision support for cochlear implant interventions   (hide ...)

With over 320,000 cochlear implant (CI) recipients worldwide, CIs have become arguably the most successful neural prostheses to date and are considered standard of care treatment for severe hearing loss. CIs use an array of electrodes surgically implanted into the cochlea to stimulate auditory nerve fibers and induce the sensation of hearing. While CIs have been remarkably successful, a significant number of CI recipients still experience poor speech understanding. Collaborative research being done at Vanderbilt has demonstrated that image-guidance and image-analysis technologies have the potential to significantly improve this intervention by addressing two factors thought to contribute to poorer outcomes -- surgical trauma and sub-optimal positioning of the CI. Novel image analysis techniques we have developed facilitate using patient CT images to perform: (1) CI surgery simulation and planning in the pre-operative phase, (2) intra-operative guidance for reduced trauma and more precise placement of the CI, and (3) selection of customized CI processor settings that address sub-optimal positioning of the device and significantly improve hearing outcomes over the standard-of-care approach. The presentation will review results from our most recent studies, current challenges, and planned directions for future research.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
September
2015
1:00pm
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
September
2015
1:00pm
Henry Zhu
VUIIS
Connecting neurotransmitters to resting-state functional connectivity at 7T   (more ...)
Connecting neurotransmitters to resting-state functional connectivity at 7T   (hide ...)

Advancing MRSI from 3T to 7T provides more than doubled spectral resolution that is uniquely advantageous compared to most MRI metrics. At 7T, we shift the focus from mapping Cho, Cr and NAA to the primary excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Glu) and its precursor glutamine (Gln). The Glu-Gln cycle consists of the release of Glu by neurons, its conversion to Gln in astrocytes and subsequent transport back to neurons. The energy consumed by these activities may be associated with the increase of BOLD signal at the locations of Glu release and conversion. As this process is central to sustaining the functions of the brain, its efficacy can potentially be used as an indicator of biological processes such as aging or the development of neurodegenerative diseases. For the first time, we conducted correlated MRSI and resting-state fMRI exams in a group of healthy volunteers to explore the experimental capabilities and post-processing framework to investigate this cycle. In this seminar, we describe our current effort and present an outlook of anticipated developments and possible applications.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
September
2015
1:00pm
Saikat Sengupta
VUIIS
Continuous Moving Table MRI at 3 Tesla   (more ...)
Continuous Moving Table MRI at 3 Tesla   (hide ...)

MRI of the whole body is of interest in many clinical studies including whole-body fat?water quantification, peripheral vascular angiography and detection of cancer metastasis. Continuously Moving Table (CMT) MRI is a high throughput technique that achieves rapid whole body imaging with distinct advantages over the traditional multistation approach to whole body MRI. The goal of our work here is develop a suite of CMT MRI techniques based on golden angle (111.246o azimuthal step, GA) radial sampling at 3 Tesla. GA sampling provides total retrospective profile binning flexibility for arbitrary slice thickness reconstructions, not possible with previously reported Linear Angle (LA) radial or other cartesian CMT techniques. I will present results of GA versus LA radial CMT MRI at 3 Tesla and our application of CMT MRI in whole body fat/water quantification. I will also discuss methods to improve CMT fat/water MRI with continuous ?B0 shimming, and show results of dynamically shimmed whole body MRI acquired in 90 seconds. Finally I will discuss most recent work on developing PROPELLER CMT MRI as a stepping stone to performing T2 weighted moving table scans.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
October
2015
1:00pm
Paula Donahue
VU Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Imaging lymphatic structure and function   (more ...)
Imaging lymphatic structure and function   (hide ...)

The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system and consists of a network of lymphatic vessels and nodes whose purpose is to maintain fluid balance, as well as to process and return capillary ultrafiltrate and plasma proteins back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic impairment is known to reduce quality of life in many crippling diseases of the 21st century, including obesity, lymphedema, and cancer. However, the lymphatics are not nearly as well-understood as other bodily systems, largely owing to a lack of sensitive imaging technologies that can be applied using standard clinical equipment. In this presentation, I will discuss breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL), which is a lifelong, debilitating condition impacting a survivor's quality of life. Despite the high prevalence of BCRL and lymphatic dysfunction in breast cancer survivors, there are currently no accepted imaging methods for evaluating lymphatic function and evaluating therapy response. This presentation will review unmet clinic needs, the pathophysiology of BCRL, and the use of structural and functional imaging to test hypotheses regarding healthy and compromised lymphatic systems, early detection of BCRL onset and the efficacy of commonly used therapeutic interventions.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
October
2015
1:00pm
Adrienne Dula
VUIIS
OctoberCEST: A Celebration of Magnetization Exchange (and reflections on being the first trainee in VUIIS)   (more ...)
OctoberCEST: A Celebration of Magnetization Exchange (and reflections on being the first trainee in VUIIS)   (hide ...)

Quantitative MRI measures have the ability to directly relate MR signal characteristics to tissue properties. MR techniques to assess saturation transfer within tissue including chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was developed and optimized for application in human pathology. As CEST is a relatively new MRI contrast approach targeting exchangeable protons instead of those in water, this noninvasive molecular sensitivity is significant. Using simulation-driven parameter choices we created clinically relevant imaging protocols.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
October
2015
1:00pm
No Seminar (Fall Break)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
October
2015
1:00pm
Dan Perrien
VU Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: Imaging opportunities on the road to treating a rare disease   (more ...)
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: Imaging opportunities on the road to treating a rare disease   (hide ...)

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is characterized by episodic and cumulative transformation of skeletal muscle to bone and is among the rarest genetic diseases. Hence, FOP patients experience progressive and permanent immobilization as their joints are fused by heterotopic bridges of bone. Since the discovery that FOP is caused by activating mutations in the Type 1 BMP receptor, Alk2, there has been a strong commercial interest in developing a treatment for FOP. However, the unpredictable episodic nature of FOP "flares" and the rarity of the disease present unusual challenges for study designs which require improved predictive and prognostic tools. FOP flares include stages of fibroproliferation, angiogenesis, and chondrogenesis that precede mineralization. Each of these processes may present diagnostic and/or prognostic opportunities for the application of existing or novel imaging methods.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
30
October
2015
1:00pm
Kirill Kovtunov
International Tomographic Center, Novosibirsk, Russia
NMR/MRI signal enhancement using parahydrogen: from mechanistic studies to medicine   (more ...)
NMR/MRI signal enhancement using parahydrogen: from mechanistic studies to medicine   (hide ...)

Nowadays parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) in heterogeneous hydrogenations has clearly proven its viability. While this sub-field of hyperpolarization in magnetic resonance is still in its infancy, at this point the demonstration that many types of heterogeneous catalysts have an intrinsic ability to produce PHIP is quite an important and encouraging achievement. Heterogeneous processes may have certain limitations, but they also have many advantages over their homogeneous counterparts. In this respect, PHIP appears to be a more direct way to catalyst-free hyperpolarized liquids and solutes production, and quite likely the only way to utilize parahydrogen to produce hyperpolarized gases. It is also expected that PHIP could become a useful tool in the mechanistic studies of heterogeneous catalytic processes.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
November
2015
1:00pm
Eric Barth
VU Mechanical Engineering
Curing Epilepsy with an MRI Compatible Needle Steering Robot   (more ...)
Curing Epilepsy with an MRI Compatible Needle Steering Robot   (hide ...)

Minimally invasive treatments for various neurological diseases require precise needle tip placement and delivery of therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the feedback necessary for this level of precision. To achieve real-time guidance of a steerable needle using the image, a robotic platform is required to be MRI compatible. Additive manufacturing (3-D printing) presents an opportunity to design such a platform that is MRI compatible, intrinsically fail-safe, sterilizable, and low cost. A compact, non-magnetic robot employing pneumatic actuation and nonlinear control is presented that achieves this aim. Through the unique combination of MRI compatibility and curved needle trajectories, this robot provides access to the deep brain through a natural opening in the skull base, potentially eliminating the need for drilling of the skull for neurosurgery. Specifically, a novel approach to epilepsy treatment via a helical steerable needle inserted through the foramen ovale for the ablation of the hippocampus is presented. Proof-of-concept testing in a 3T scanner has indicated adequate precision and minimal image noise. Will Grissom of the VUIIS will also speak about challenges and progress in performing real-time MR thermometry around the curved needle and ablation probe.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
November
2015
1:00pm
Bennett Landman
VU Electrical Engineering/VUIIS
BigData Neuroimage Processing: Combining algorithm innovation with software-as-a-service   (more ...)
BigData Neuroimage Processing: Combining algorithm innovation with software-as-a-service   (hide ...)

Big data offer an opportunity to study specific control populations (age / sex / demographics / genetics) and identify substantive homogeneous sub-cohorts so that one may understand the role that individual factors play in treatment response. Millions of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) images on hundred of thousands of individuals are currently stored our radiology archives. Worldwide, these data files are estimated to constitute one-third of global storage demand, but are effectively trapped on storage media. Neuroscience / neuroimaging studies now produce an abundance of imaging data, but generate a poverty of context with which to analyze data and drive discovery. At VUIIS, we have been driving innovation in medical image high performance computing, reusability of image processing software, and robust algorithms for segmentation. Today, we will present case studies in diffusion tensor imaging, whole brain segmentation, and cortical surface estimation.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
November
2015
1:00pm
Will Grissom
VUIIS
Rethinking Parallel Transmit MRI   (more ...)
Rethinking Parallel Transmit MRI   (hide ...)

Parallel radiofrequency (RF) pulse transmission using multiple RF coils promises to prospectively eliminate image artifacts due to field inhomogeneities, enable sophisticated reduced-FOV imaging schemes, and even improve patient safety. It is considered essential at ultra-high field strengths of 7 Tesla and above, and two-channel parallel transmit is now standard on flagship 3T scanners. However, despite having been first proposed about 15 years ago, it has yet to realize its full potential, beyond producing minor gains in transmit RF field uniformity. This are several reasons for this, including the difficulty of scaling up the number of high power transmit channels to reach the large numbers of channels enjoyed by parallel receive, the large computational demand of designing patient-tailored parallel RF pulses and ensuring their safety while the patient lies in the scanner, and a lack of suitable parallel transmit coil arrays. In this talk I will present our group?s recent efforts to alleviate these roadblocks by rethinking how parallel coils are designed and related to their amplifiers, and whether we actually need to model MR physics when designing patient-tailored parallel pulses.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
November
2015
1:00pm
No Seminar (Thanksgiving)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
December
2015
1:00pm
Charles Manning
VUIIS
Novel Precision Imaging Diagnostics of Cancer
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
December
2015
1:00pm
Jacob Houghton
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Strategies for molecular imaging and targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer   (more ...)
Strategies for molecular imaging and targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer   (hide ...)

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most devastating forms of cancer and it will soon be the second-leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, surpassing both breast and colorectal cancer. Over the next decade advances in the fields of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine will be critical for improving the outcomes for patients with pancreatic cancer. Dr. Houghton?s research takes a multi-faceted approach to the development of radiopharmaceuticals for a number of applications, including: anatomical localization of premalignant and cancerous lesions, molecularly targeted radiotherapeutics, optical imaging probes for image-guided surgery, as well as companion diagnostics for chemo-, radio-, and immunotherapy. In his presentation, Dr. Houghton will discuss the development of molecular imaging probes ? both PET and optical ? that target pancreatic cancer biomarkers and their assessment in advanced preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Additionally, he will discuss progress in the preclinical development of radioimmunotherapy strategies for pancreatic cancer.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
December
2015
1:00pm
No Seminar (Winter Break)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
25
December
2015
1:00pm
No Seminar (Happy Holidays!)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
January
2016
1:00pm
Frank Tong
Vanderbilt University
Characterizing visual and attentional processes throughout the human visual pathway   (more ...)
Characterizing visual and attentional processes throughout the human visual pathway   (hide ...)

In this talk, I will describe some fMRI work from my lab characterizing how basic features (e.g., orientation) and complex objects are represented at multiple levels of the human visual system. Although the primary visual cortex (V1) is commonly thought to be the site where orientation selectivity emerges, we find evidence of coarse orientation selectivity in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Further experiments show that the strength of feature-selective responses in the LGN can be modulated by visual attention, as well as by the surrounding visual context. In the second part of this talk, I will describe some analytic methods and approaches that my lab has developed using multivariate pattern analysis and voxel-based encoding models to characterize the representations of visual stimuli and how these representations can be flexibly modified by attentional feedback. Questions and open discussion of these and related analytic approaches are welcome.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
January
2016
1:00pm
Junzhong Xu
VUIIS
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
January
2016
1:00pm
Lori Arlinghaus Davis
Cancelled due to snow storm!
Vanderbilt University
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
29
January
2016
1:00pm
Reed Omary, M.D., M.S.
CME Accredited Lecture
Vanderbilt University
How to Jumpstart a Research-Based Academic Career   (more ...)
How to Jumpstart a Research-Based Academic Career   (hide ...)

In this talk, Dr. Omary will discuss several key tactics to jumpstarting academic research careers. These include: a) collaborating with successful existing research teams; b) developing a niche; and c) targeting specific outcome measures of success. Concrete examples of each approach will be discussed, as well as some of the ways that successful researchers think about their overall strategies.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
05
February
2016
1:00pm
Daniel Claasen
Vanderbilt University, Dept of Neurology
Impulsive-Compulsive Behaviors in Parknson's Disease   (more ...)
Impulsive-Compulsive Behaviors in Parknson's Disease   (hide ...)

Motor symptoms in Parkinson?s disease (PD) are effectively managed by dopamine-based therapies, yet behavioral changes in patients can arise as an unintended consequence. Symptoms characterized by persistent participation in reward-driven activities result in significant morbidity to patients and caregivers. The descriptive term for these symptoms, impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICB), captures the aberrant, goal-directed, decision-making phenomenology typified in this clinical condition. Symptoms range from hypersexuality to compulsive eating, gambling, shopping, and excessive participation in certain hobbies. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors are more commonly manifest in patients taking dopamine agonist therapy, and behaviors can abate with reduction or discontinuation of their use. This talk will be comprised of three parts: the clinical presentation and importance of Dopamine Agonist use, description of medication-induced behavioral changes linked to mesocorticolimbic network, and a review of recent findings describing distinct functional brain changes in patients with ICB (with emphasis on cerebral blood flow, D2-like receptor PET imaging, and BOLD signal changes).
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
12
February
2016
1:00pm
Mike Nickels
Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
19
February
2016
1:00pm
John Gore
CME Accredited Lecture
Vanderbilt University
Bogus Science: an imaging perspective   (more ...)
Bogus Science: an imaging perspective   (hide ...)

Bogus Science is not the same as bad science. It connotes acts of volition that are intended to persuade people that something is true and supported by scientific evidence when such ?truths? are actually bogus. We classify Bogus Science in 4 categories: (i) pseudoscience (ii) fraudulent science (iii) pathological science and (iv) corrupted science. There are innumerable examples of each of these that have arisen historically and are pervasive today. Each can be illustrated by examples taken from radiology and medical imaging. Understanding and appreciating some of the pitfalls of Bogus Science is essential for educating the public and maintaining professional ethics.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
26
February
2016
1:00pm
Dan Brown
Interventional Oncology
Locoregional Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Optimizing the Gold Standard   (more ...)
Locoregional Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Optimizing the Gold Standard   (hide ...)

Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are unresectable at diagnosis due to underlying cirrhosis of the liver. The incidence of HCC is increasing rapidly in the United States. These patients can only be cured with liver transplantation. However the need for organs far outstrips supply and many patients have disease burdens too significant for transplantation. Interventional Oncology arterial treatments with chemoembolization or Yttrium-90 radioembolization along with thermal ablation are the gold standard to bridge patients to transplant or as definitive therapy. During this presentation, the history and techniques guiding these procedures will be reviewed. Additionally, opportunities to optimize outcomes will be discussed, including serum and imaging biomarkers as well as intra-procedural monitoring and targeting.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
March
2016
1:00pm
Peter Konrad, MD, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Restoration of Standing and Walking with ISMS in Humans   (more ...)
Restoration of Standing and Walking with ISMS in Humans   (hide ...)

Spinal cord neural circuitry exists in the lumbar enlargement that makes it possible to stand and create synergistic, rhythmic stepping activity in the lower limbs. This circuitry has been described in the literature for nearly 100 years following the seminal works by Sherrington in 1910 and Graham Brown in 1911. In the past 20 years, clinicians have tried to reengage such these circuits for standing and walking in the lower spinal cord of paralyzed humans through novel paradigms of physical therapy, pharmacological stimulation of the spinal cord, or recently ? epidural stimulation of the spinal cord5. Although standing and stepping with these maneuvers are rudimentary at best, these human studies offer promise to restore controlled, lower extremity movement to the spinal cord injured (SCI) individual. Evidence from animal data suggests that more focal activation of intraspinal circuitry (IntraSpinal Micro-Stimulation ? ISMS) would produce more fatigue resistant, natural standing and stepping activity in humans. To date, there has been no direct confirmation of such circuitry in the spinal cord of bipedal humans who have been paralyzed. Furthermore, mapping of such circuitry would provide the basis of a novel intraspinal neuroprosthetic that should be able to restore control of standing or walking in a manner that is much more physiologically normal and tolerable than by stimulating each individual muscle group. Proof of the existence of these spinal circuits in man, and the ability to activate and control these circuits by first mapping the spinal cord is the basis of this proposal.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
March
2016
1:00pm
Owen Jones
Law & Biological Sciences
Vanderbilt University
The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience: Promise, Perils, and New Findings   (more ...)
The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience: Promise, Perils, and New Findings   (hide ...)

The fields of law and neuroscience may seem unlikely bedfellows. But given that law deals in the complexities of human decision-making and behavior, the intersection of these two fields was (for better or worse) inevitable. This talk provides an overview of the new interdisciplinary field that has emerged at that intersection, with particular emphasis on the formative work of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience (www.lawneuro.org). Headquartered at Vanderbilt, the Research Network has partnered legal scholars, judges, and neuroscientists from around the nation in collaborative empirical and conceptual work relevant to the justice system.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
March
2016
1:00pm
Aashim Bhatia, M.D., M.S.
CME Accredited Lecture
Department Radiology and Radiological Sciences
Imaging in Pediatric Stroke   (more ...)
Imaging in Pediatric Stroke   (hide ...)

Early diagnosis of stroke in children is critical in limiting morbidity and mortality, with neuroimaging a critical component. Multiple factors contribute to missed or frequently delayed diagnosis of pediatric stroke. Advancements in imaging have allowed for quicker and more accurate diagnosis of pediatric stroke. During this presentation, an overview of the etiology of pediatric stroke as well as discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of various imaging modalities will be reviewed. There will be a discussion of the standard imaging stroke protocol in children and indications for using Gadolinium based contrast agents. We will also focus on advancements in MRI, a particular area of interest of mine, that may allow for quicker acquisition and further understanding of the etiology of pediatric stroke.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
April
2016
1:00pm
Henry Van Brocklin
University of California, San Francisco
From photons to positrons: Development of Targeted Imaging Agents for Prostate Cancer
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
April
2016
1:00pm
Danny Reich
Chief, Translational Neuroradiology Unit
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Imaging the Lesion in Multiple Sclerosis   (more ...)
Imaging the Lesion in Multiple Sclerosis   (hide ...)

How, and how well, do acute white matter lesions heal in multiple sclerosis (MS)? Can tissue repair be characterized in vivo? And how might we test emerging treatments to promote such repair in early phase clinical trials? After more than a century of research into the pathology of MS, and 35 years since MRI was first applied in the disease, the answers to these questions still elude us. Emerging data from epidemiological studies seem to confirm our intuition that tissue destruction within lesions may be highly relevant to the long-term accumulation of disability that occurs in progressive MS. At the same time, treatments that are most effective in reducing the chance of new lesion formation can also be dangerously immunosuppressive. Fortunately, there is now convincing experimental evidence that extensive endogenous repair, including remyelination, can occur soon after a lesion first appears, raising the possibility that therapeutic promotion of such repair might have both short-term and long-lasting benefits. In this talk, I will present data from our group's studies in the radiology and pathology of active MS1,2 and primate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis3 that together provide a framework for the spatiotemporal evolution of new white matter lesions. I will discuss how the blood-brain barrier is altered in distinct ways at different stages of lesion formation, and in particular how these alterations are reflected in magnetic susceptibility changes detectable using ultra-high-field (7 tesla) MRI. I will further show how such changes can be used to monitor and predict the extent of lesion repair, even over periods of several months. The ability to image these processes leads naturally to a set of efficient trial designs for short-term, proof-of-concept clinical trials to assess lesion repair, 4 potentially opening the way for the development of add-on agents that may limit the amount of tissue damage that occurs within new white matter lesions.

1. Gaitan MI, Shea CD, Evangelou IE, et al. Evolution of the blood-brain barrier in newly forming multiple sclerosis lesions. Annals of Neurology 2011;70(1):22?29.
2. Absinta M, Sati P, Gaitan MI, et al. Seven-tesla phase imaging of acute multiple sclerosis lesions: a new window into the inflammatory process. Annals of Neurology 2013;74(5):669?678.
3. Maggi P, Macri SMC, Gaitan MI, et al. The formation of inflammatory demyelinated lesions in cerebral white matter. Annals of Neurology 2014;76(4):594?608.
4. Reich DS, White R, Cortese IC, et al. Sample-size calculations for short-term proof-of-concept studies of tissue protection and repair in multiple sclerosis lesions via conventional clinical imaging. Mult Scler 2015;21(13):1693?1704.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
April
2016
1:00pm
Yen-Yu Ian Shih
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Up and Down of the fMRI Signals in the Striatum   (more ...)
Up and Down of the fMRI Signals in the Striatum   (hide ...)

The relationship between hemodynamics and neuronal activity may not always be straightforward. Our previous studies showed that negative fMRI responses in the striatum are evoked by peripheral sensory stimulation, which are correlated with increased neuronal activity and dependent upon dopamine D2 receptor signaling. Conversely, a recent optogenetic study from our group has demonstrated selective stimulation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons induces striatal CBV increases, which are blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist. These collective findings suggest that striatal hemodynamics may present in a dichotomous fashion, with activity between D1 and D2 receptor expressing striatal projection neurons evoking opposing hemodynamic responses (positive and negative responses, respectively). To further shed light on the unique neurovascular coupling in the striatum, we employed an optogenetic fMRI approach to address questions of whether vasodilation occurs in the striatum during selective stimulation of striatal input from the motor cortex, and antidromic stimulation of striatal output. Based on the well-known ?input? theory of fMRI responses and results from our prior work, one might anticipate that both stimulations would induce positive fMRI responses. Surprisingly, that was wrong ? both manipulations reliably evoked negative fMRI responses in the striatum.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
April
2016
1:00pm
Kate Hartley
CME Accredited Lecture
Vanderbilt University
The Accidental Researcher   (more ...)
The Accidental Researcher   (hide ...)

Academic Medicine offers many paths to clinicians. A career represents a journey, accompanied by others, with pauses, course corrections, and occasional bushwhacking, to a destination not fully known. The lessons and answers are on the path, not at its end. I will share my walk as a junior clinical faculty member, highlighting the expected and unexpected outcomes of several collaborative efforts.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
29
April
2016
1:00pm
Allen Newton
Vanderbilt University
Children are Not Small Adults: Opportunities for Translational Imaging in Children   (more ...)
Children are Not Small Adults: Opportunities for Translational Imaging in Children   (hide ...)

Children are not small adults, but most imaging solutions are developed with adults in mind. Children are unique in that they suffer from diseases not commonly seen in adults, their bodies change form and function in ways that those of adults do not, and they behave in ways that are not common for adults. Together, these differences present a unique challenge when imaging children clinically with MRI. Here, we will discuss our efforts with respect to translational pediatric imaging and functional neuroimaging, with special attention paid to understanding the realities of current clinical MRI programs and opportunities for improving them.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
September
2016
1:00pm
Manus, Donahue, PhD
CME Accredited Lecture
Integration of Imaging Biomarkers into Routine Radiological Practice   (more ...)
Integration of Imaging Biomarkers into Routine Radiological Practice   (hide ...)

Our work focuses on applying imaging methodologies to identify quantitative biomarkers of disease progression that manifest prior to irreversible tissue damage, and as such can be used to titrate prophylactic therapies in subclinical disease stages. I will discuss how these methods are being applied in different disorders of the circulation (blood and lymphatic flow) (i) in basic investigations of human physiology, (ii) as endpoints in clinical trials at Vanderbilt, and (iii) finally how the clinical imaging infrastructure at Vanderbilt has been expanded to incorporate a subgroup of these methods.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
September
2016
1:00pm
Sanjay Jain, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
In vivo Imaging of Bacterial Infections
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
September
2016
1:00pm
Bruce Berkowitz, PhD
Professor and Director of Small Animal MRI Facility
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Co-sponsored by the Vanderbilt Eye Institute and Vision Research Center
CANCELLED
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
October
2016
12:00am
Adam Anderson, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Why the sky is blue and 7T MRI is hard
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
14
October
2016
1:00pm
Danila Barskiy, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Quantum mechanical tricks for magnetic resonance: hyperpolarization and long-lived nuclear spin states
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
21
October
2016
1:00pm
Sandeep Arora, MBBS
CME Accredited Lecture
Abdominal Imaging and Intervention research - Advanced MRI techniques, Iron nanoparticles and Therapeutic Ultrasound
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
November
2016
1:00pm
Victoria Morgan, PhD
CME Accredited Lecture
Beyond the focus. Why imaging networks is important in temporal lobe epilepsy.   (more ...)
Beyond the focus. Why imaging networks is important in temporal lobe epilepsy.   (hide ...)

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of focal epilepsy with seizures generated from a single brain region. However, the term ?focal? epilepsy is misleading in that there is evidence that TLE seizures propagate along widespread networks originating from the focus in the hippocampus and affecting lateral temporal lobe, subcortical, frontal and parietal regions. We hypothesize that understanding how these widespread brain networks change in epilepsy can provide insight into the characteristics of seizures and their associated neurocognitive impairments. In addition, network based biomarkers may be useful in predicting treatment response or developing more effective treatments for the individual patient. Over several years, our group has developed MRI functional and structural connectivity methods targeted towards these clinical applications. In this talk, some recent examples of our work in these areas will be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
11
November
2016
1:00pm
Jim Pekar, PhD
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Spontaneous Fluctuations Reveal Connectivity Between Intrinsic Brain Networks: From Spinal Cord Injury to Developmental Disorders   (more ...)
Spontaneous Fluctuations Reveal Connectivity Between Intrinsic Brain Networks: From Spinal Cord Injury to Developmental Disorders   (hide ...)

Magnetic resonance imaging sensitized to neuronal hemodynamics reveals spontaneous fluctuations that can be decomposed into synchrony within, and synchrony between, intrinsic brain networks. This resting-state synchrony is a useful measure of brain functional connectivity. We show that connectivity between visual & motor networks is: increased in persons with chronic spinal cord injury; decreased in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder; associated with symptom severity in both populations. This approach promises to yield noninvasive imaging-based biomarkers that are needed in order to reveal disease mechanisms, improve diagnosis and prognosis, and assess therapeutic interventions.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Thursday
17
November
2016
12:00am
Matthew Cronin, PhD
University of California, Berkeley
Investigating the effects of microstructure and magnetic susceptibility in MRI
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
December
2016
1:00pm
Jon Kaas
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
December
2016
1:00pm
Francesca Bagnato
CME Accredited Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
January
2017
1:00pm
John Gore, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Current and Future Trends in Biomedical Imaging Science
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
January
2017
1:00pm
Tamara Branca, PhD
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Combined Hyperpolarized xenon MRI and xenon enhanced CT for morphological and functional assessment of brown adipose tissue   (more ...)
Combined Hyperpolarized xenon MRI and xenon enhanced CT for morphological and functional assessment of brown adipose tissue   (hide ...)

Our inability to accurately measure brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume and thermogenic activity remains one of the major roadblocks to our understanding of the physiology and function of this tissue in humans. While we currently use both 18F-FDG-PET/CT and MRI to assess BAT tissue function and mass, partial volume effects and lack of specificity have prevented accurate quantification of tissue mass and function. As a result, it is still not clear how much brown fat adult humans really have and whether obese subject are obese because they lack BAT function or because they lack BAT altogether.
Here we show that magnetic resonance with Hyperpolarized 129Xe gas (HP129XeMR) and xenon enhanced CT can provide a complete picture of BAT, both from a functional and morphological standpoint. We show that HP129XeMR, typically used to assess lung ventilation function, can also be used for MR thermometry of fatty tissues. When temperature measurements are performed during stimulation of thermogenic activity, HP129XeMR can then provide a direct measurement of the thermogenic capacity of this tissue, revealing profound differences between lean and obese phenotypes. At the same time, xenon enhanced CT, typically considered as an alternative to HP129XeMR, provides complementary information on tissue volume, revealing extensive hypertrophy of this tissue in the obese phenotype in which this tissue is largely 'invisible'. Validation in rodents and preliminary results in humans will be presented.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
January
2017
1:00pm
Stephan Heckers, MD, MSc
Vanderbilt University
CME Accredited Seminar
What is wrong with the hippocampus in schizophrenia?
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
February
2017
1:00pm
Brian Welch, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Non-Cartesian MRI Demystified   (more ...)
Non-Cartesian MRI Demystified   (hide ...)

Despite being the first approach for acquiring MR images, non-Cartesian sampling trajectories remain underutilized compared to ubiquitous rectilinear Cartesian methods. Compared to Cartesian sampling, non-Cartesian methods such as radial, spiral and PROPE
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
February
2017
1:00pm
David Vago
Vanderbilt University
Mapping the Meditative Mind ? Neural substrates for Modalities of Awareness   (more ...)
Mapping the Meditative Mind ? Neural substrates for Modalities of Awareness   (hide ...)

This seminar will examine in detail the underlying neurobiological substrates that support peak states of phenomenal clarity during mindful awareness in a cross-section of meditators with variable expertise. Differences in visual, auditory, and somatic modalities of awareness in the context of meditation will also be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
February
2017
1:00pm
Erik Mittra, MD
Stanford University
Glutamate PET imaging for cancer   (more ...)
Glutamate PET imaging for cancer   (hide ...)

Improved methods to non-invasively diagnose and evaluate patients with cancer are critical for diagnosis, prognosis, and response assessment. (4S)-4-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate (18F-FSPG) is a novel 18F-labeled L-glutamate derivative for PET imaging. Inside the cell, L-glutamate is known to play important roles for glutaminolysis, for glutathione biosynthesis, and as exchange substrate for system xC-. The glutaminolytic pathway is receiving more and more attention as an alternate energy source, beyond glycolysis, for cancer cells. And, as part of the cellular detoxification system, system xC- (stabilized by the cell-surface glycoprotein CD44) and glutathione play an important role for protection against reactive oxygen species and tumor survival during therapy. There has also recently been the development of several chemotherapy compounds that inhibit the glutaminolytic pathway. A new, first-in-class, glutaminase inhibitor (CB-839, Calithera Biosciences) has been developed to target the glutaminase pathway by blocking the conversion of glutamine to glutamate. A major barrier to developing this and other such therapeutics is the requirement for better biomarkers to accelerate clinical development and assist in determining optimal dose associated with pharmacodynamic effect in vivo, proper patient selection and response assessment. With this background, and in the context of the over-riding goal in cancer research to have clinically applicable, non-invasive methods to image specific receptors and pathways for targeted therapy (i.e. imaging biomarkers to enable precision medicine), the 18F-FPSG molecule is perfectly suited for further research as a human PET imaging agent. Considerable preclinical evaluation of this 18F-FSPG shows rapid blood clearance and low background activity providing high contrast for tumor imaging. Preliminary studies in human patients with many different types of cancer confirm these findings, showing particularly good results in a subset of patients.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
February
2017
1:00pm
Scott Swanson, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
Magnetization transfer MRI: principles, practice, and new potential   (more ...)
Magnetization transfer MRI: principles, practice, and new potential   (hide ...)

Magnetization transfer (MT) MRI indirectly images the semisolid components of tissues (large proteins, polysaccharides, and phospholipids) by means of the easily detected water signal. Recent work has identified that a variant of MT, termed inhomogeneous MT (ihMT), creates MR images that are highly specific to the lipids in myelin. This talk will outline the biophysical foundations of MT and ihMT, present methods to measure lipid fluidity and lipid order in model myelin membranes, and discuss future applications to white matter diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
March
2017
1:00pm
Kim Sandler
CME Accredited Seminar
Vanderbilt Lung Screening: Past, Present and Future   (more ...)
Vanderbilt Lung Screening: Past, Present and Future   (hide ...)

Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer among men and women in the United States. Although smoking has long been known to be the most predictive risk factor for the development of lung cancer, official guidelines for lung cancer screening in high-risk populations were developed only recently. This has led to a traditionally late-stage diagnosis of lung cancer with limited treatment options and high mortality rates. In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force released guidelines for annual lung cancer screening for those who qualify, based on results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Vanderbilt participated as one of 33 academic medical centers in the NLST, which demonstrated a 20% reduction in overall mortality from lung cancer with annual screening. However, the adoption of these screening guidelines has been slow in many practices. As the Vanderbilt Lung Screening Program continues to grow, we are continuing to develop new outreach initiatives to improve enrollment, including a recently conceptualized randomized control trial to evaluate outreach strategies. This lecture will provide a brief history of lung screening, both nationally and at VUMC, demographics and summary of screening results in our patient population, and future directions for the program.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
March
2017
1:00pm
Kevin Harkins, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
How to Jump Start Your Career with Bad Data
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
March
2017
1:00pm
Francesca Bagnato, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
How Magnetic Resonance Imaging has Revolutionized the Care of Multiple Sclerosis   (more ...)
How Magnetic Resonance Imaging has Revolutionized the Care of Multiple Sclerosis   (hide ...)

Ever since its advent in the 1980s, MRI has become fundamental for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with multiple sclerosis. MRI has also revolutionized multiple sclerosis care. The present seminar will offer an opportunity to: (1) understand the role of MRI in clinical and research setting, (2) describe the pathological correlates of MRI findings in multiple sclerosis patients, (3) discuss the unmet imaging needs in the multiple sclerosis field.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
March
2017
1:00pm
Limin Chen, PhD
Vanderbilt University
Neuroimaging beyond the brain: multiparametric MRI of spinal cord plasticity after injury in monkeys   (more ...)
Neuroimaging beyond the brain: multiparametric MRI of spinal cord plasticity after injury in monkeys   (hide ...)

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating medical condition that disrupts neural pathways, can lead to severe sensory impairment and motor deficits, and severely worsens the quality of life of SCI patients. Over time, however some aspects of impaired function can recover. There has long existed a need for objective, noninvasive metrics of the nature of temporal changes and recovery of injured spinal cord tissue from structural, functional, and molecular perspectives. Non-invasive quantitative MRI and fMRI are well suited for these purposes. These methods have been technically challenging, mainly due to the small size of the spinal cord, MRI field inhomogeneity, and motion artifacts caused by cerebral spinal fluid pulsation associated with cardiac and respiratory cycles. I will report our new developments of multi-parametric CEST, qMT, DTI, and fMRI for longitudinal quantification of the spontaneous recovery of injured spinal cord tissue and function. I will show data illustrating the power of such an approach for monitoring changes of molecular composition (with CEST), white matter microstructure and number of traceable white matter bundles (with DTI), myelination state (with qMT), and status of functional connectivity of grey matter horns (with resting state fMRI) in a well-controlled primate SCI model. Correlation analysis of the MRI/fMRI metrics and the indices of the behavioral impairment supports the clinical relevance of these non-invasive measures. These metrics have the potential to become sensitive and objective imaging biomarkers for evaluating SCI injury severity, clinical prognosis, and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
31
March
2017
1:00pm
Gianmarco Pinton, PhD
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill &
North Carolina State University
Ultrasound and nonlinear wave propagation in the human body   (more ...)
Ultrasound and nonlinear wave propagation in the human body   (hide ...)

The soft tissue of the human body supports both fast acoustic waves (1540 m/s) and slow shear waves (2 m/s). At large amplitudes these waves exhibit nonlinear behavior, such as harmonic development and shock formation. We have developed models and simulation tools that describe the physics of nonlinear acoustic propagation, attenuation, and scattering in highly realistic representations of the human body. We have used these models to develop new ultrasound imaging methods and to noninvasively treat brain tumors. We have also developed a new imaging high frame-rate (10,000 images/second) imaging technique that can directly and accurately image brain motion down to the micron level during traumatic brain injury. This study shows that shear shock waves are generated and propagate in the brain.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
07
April
2017
1:00pm
Bruce Berkowitz, PhD
CANCELLED!
Wayne State University School of Medicine
co-sponsored: Vanderbilt Eye Institute and Vision Research Center
Oxidative Stress and its Functional Consequences Measured In Vivo by MRI   (more ...)
Oxidative Stress and its Functional Consequences Measured In Vivo by MRI   (hide ...)

In 1992, it was not obvious that MRI, a relatively insensitive and still developing imaging method, would be useful for examining the retina, one of the thinnest organs in the body. Since then, Dr. Berkowitz has established a body of work that highlights MRI as a surprisingly useful discovery tool in vision research. These methods have been successful transitioned into cancer and brain research areas, and are used by drug companies and other investigators world-wide. Improvements in resolution and methodology have even allowed us to measure the physiology of sub-compartments within rod cells in vivo. These data are spatially grounded based on optical coherence tomography images and compared to visual performance using optokinetic tracking. His current pioneering efforts uses MRI to measure neuronal oxidative stress without a contrast agent in untreatable neurodegenerative disease to optimize antioxidant treatment in vivo.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
September
2017
1:00pm
Thomas Theis
Assistant Research Professor of Chemistry, Duke University
Hyperpolarization Chemistry for Affordable Biomolecular MRI    (more ...)
Hyperpolarization Chemistry for Affordable Biomolecular MRI    (hide ...)

Virtually all clinical MR images are of water, and virtually all of these images are acquired with expensive superconducting high-field magnets. High fields are needed to maximize polarization and sensitivity. Yet even with the strongest magnets, it is extremely challenging to detect biomolecules at low concentrations directly reporting on biological function deep inside human organs. The presented research focuses on low-cost hyperpolarization and low-cost, low-field MRI to deliver ultrasensitive and affordable biomolecular MRI. We develop and characterize parahydrogen based polarization transfer catalysis (SABRE-SHEATH), which we use to hyperpolarize metabolites, drugs and other small molecules directly in room temperature solutions (organic and aqueous).(1-4) The resulting hyperpolarization boost NMR and MRI signal by up to ten million fold (depending on exact hyperpolarization level and the field at which we acquire the signals). A challenge, however, is the fast decay of hyperpolarized signals. Therefore, we design the hyperpolarized substrates with heteronuclear (15N and 13C) spin labeling schemes for long-term retention of hyperpolarization. We achieve decay time constants of above 20 minutes enabling hour-long molecular tracking.(2) We observe particularly long lifetimes at low magnetic fields of 1 T and below.(3) Therefore, low magnetic fields become attractive, not only because of their affordability and ease of use, but because they enable metabolic tracking on biological timescales. We discuss sensitivity scaling as a function of magnetic field, and present first principle insights as well as experimental demonstrations showing significant gains for longer waiting times as we move to lower fields.(3, 5) Figure 1 illustrates our nascent technology and its potential for hyperpolarized low-field molecular MRI.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
15
September
2017
1:00pm
Yong Wang, PhD
Washington University of Medicine in St. Louis
From Electrocardiographic Imaging to Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Beyond   (more ...)
From Electrocardiographic Imaging to Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Beyond   (hide ...)

Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) is a powerful, noninvasive cardiac imaging technique that has overcome limitations of traditional ECG, such as poor diagnosis specificity, lacking of spatial information and so on. Through solving an ill-posed inverse problem, ECGI resolves and transforms the multi-channel mixed ECG signals measured on the chest noninvasively onto heart surface with significant improvement of specificity. ECGI has been successfully used to guide radiofrequency ablations to treat cardiac arrhythmia in human. The success and experience in developing ECGI directly inspired and impacted the invention and development of a new diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) called diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI). ECGI and DBSI are twins growing up in two completely different families/fields, with the same technology genes (ill-posed inverse problem) but different application bodies (Cardiology and Radiology). In this seminar, I will first introduce ECGI technology, then discuss how DBSI is invented/developed with clinical applications. I will also talk about the new development of DBSI in cancer imaging. I will conclude by discussing other applications that can potentially benefit from the same technique underlying ECGI and DBSI.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
22
September
2017
1:00pm
Robert Gould, PhD
Vanderbilt University
How multimodal neuroimaging technologies can provide innovative approaches for the treatment of Substance Use Disorders    (more ...)
How multimodal neuroimaging technologies can provide innovative approaches for the treatment of Substance Use Disorders    (hide ...)

Substance Use Disorder (SUD) remains a large public health problem worldwide that contributes to negative consequences at individual, familial, local community and global levels. Neuroimaging studies have been crucial in establishing that drug addiction is a disorder of the brain and is reflected by the recent change in nomenclature from ?drug abuse or addiction? to ?Substance Use Disorder? in the DSM-V. A brief overview of groundbreaking human and animal studies will be presented demonstrating that habitual and repeated drug use, despite negative consequences is, in fact a brain disorder. Although understanding the pathophysiological effects of chronic drug use is informative, drug treatments for SUD?s are relatively ineffective (for opioid, alcohol and nicotine use) and there remains no FDA-approved treatments for cocaine use disorder. Developing treatments for SUDs requires an understanding of 1) the underlying neurobiological changes caused by repeated drug use; 2) alterations that occur during abstinence following chronic drug use; and, 3) how putative pharmacological or psychosocial treatments affect underlying pathophysiology and future behavior. Ongoing animal studies will be described that focus on developing new treatments for multiple aspects of cocaine use disorder by examining novel pharmacological agents in classic animal models of drug addiction paired with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake animals.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
29
September
2017
1:00pm
Wellington Pham, PhD
Associate Professor, VUIIS
Medicinal Chemistry in the Era of Precision Medicine   (more ...)
Medicinal Chemistry in the Era of Precision Medicine   (hide ...)

This talk will describe a multidisciplinary approach integrating medicinal chemistry with nanotechnology and drug delivery for targeted theranostic applications. Particularly, the sensitivity and specificity enhancements available with multimodal characteristics of nanotechnology combined with high resolution molecular imaging, provide a powerful tool for the identification of biomarkers. During this presentation, I will discuss the development of probes, methods of surface fabrication, quantification and the translation of these probes for cancer imaging and vaccine delivery in preclinical animal models and clinical work. Further, innovative assays to diversify the chemical genetics of Abeta-binding analogs will also be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
October
2017
1:00pm
Nellie Byun, PhD
Research Instructor, VUIIS
Pharmacological MRI Approaches for Pharmacology and Neuroscience   (more ...)
Pharmacological MRI Approaches for Pharmacology and Neuroscience   (hide ...)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with drug stimuli, or pharmacological MRI (phMRI), is a technique used to study the in vivo actions of drugs in the brain. PhMRI also provides a unique approach for studying questions in neuroscience, including brain function, organization, and plasticity. The main goals of phMRI in drug development are two-fold: determining regional brain engagement by the drug of interest that informs on the relationship between dose and therapeutic (and adverse) effects and, second, to objectively quantify brain responses in specific regions instead of relying solely on subjective methods (e.g., self-reports) in humans or animal behavior. For neuroscience research, phMRI is particularly suitable for the study of neurotransmitter modulation and brain circuitry in vivo. First, I will discuss the stages of preclinical drug development of brain disorders, focusing on our phMRI work in a multidisciplinary setting. Next, I will focus on my main area of research, determining how monoaminergic output, particularly dopamine, alters brain activity, and how dopamine signaling can be manipulated by the metabotropic glutamate and muscarinic achetylcholine systems. A third, future, application of phMRI is in personalized medicine to determine an individual?s ?neurotransmitter receptor and transporter phenotype? that informs on potential responses to drugs, including susceptibility to addiction, and behavioral traits
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
October
2017
1:00pm
Jim Delikatny, Ph.D.
Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania
Probing Cancer Metabolism with Molecular Imaging
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
October
2017
1:00pm
Bruce Damon, PhD
Associate Professor, VUIIS
Rigor and Reproducibility: What?s All the Fuss?
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
October
2017
1:00pm
Catie Chang, PhD
Advanced MRI, NIH
Vigilance fluctuations and fMRI signal dynamics   (more ...)
Vigilance fluctuations and fMRI signal dynamics   (hide ...)

Changes in vigilance (brain arousal) are associated with prominent changes in neuronal activity, behavior, and physiology. However, these state changes are not typically monitored during fMRI, and their impact on fMRI measures of brain activity and network connectivity is not fully understood. Here, we integrate multi-modal neuroimaging and pattern analysis to develop an approach for tracking vigilance levels from fMRI data alone. In addition, we investigate the contribution of physiological processes (indexed by respiration and cardiac activity) to fMRI signals during changes in vigilance. Finally, we combine whole-brain fMRI with transient pharmacological inactivation in the macaque to examine how cortical fMRI signals linked with vigilance are shaped by specific nuclei in the basal forebrain. These findings suggest that characterizing fMRI dynamics linked with internal state changes can improve the sensitivity and extraction of biomarkers from fMRI
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
03
November
2017
1:00pm
Shane Hutson, PhD
Professor of Physics and of Biological Sciences
Chair, Dept of Physics & Astronomy
Vanderbilt University
Visualizing Fast Ca2+ Dynamics around Microsurgical Wounds   (more ...)
Visualizing Fast Ca2+ Dynamics around Microsurgical Wounds   (hide ...)

For epithelial cells to heal a wound, those cells must first become aware of the presence, location, and size of the wound. This knowledge must be shared by cells in direct contact with the wound and those much further away, the latter of which must be recruited by some sort of mechanical or biochemical signal. We have investigated these signaling mechanisms using the exquisite spatial and temporal control afforded by laser-induced microsurgical wounds. One of the first signals observed after wounding epithelial tissues is a cytoplasmic influx of Ca2+ ions. This signal begins within milliseconds of wounding, expands outwards in multiple stages over the course of seconds to minutes, and finally devolves into localized signal flares that continue for hours as the wound closes. We will delineate what we have learned from visualizing, quantifying and modeling these signal dynamics and the physical and molecular mechanisms that drive them.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
10
November
2017
1:00pm
Zhaohua Ding, PhD
Associate Professor, VUIIS
Exploring Dark Matter in the Human Brain: Functional Tensor Imaging and Beyond   (more ...)
Exploring Dark Matter in the Human Brain: Functional Tensor Imaging and Beyond   (hide ...)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) usually detects changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions, and is most effective in detecting activity in brain cortex. Due to much less vasculature in white matter, it typically appears to be dark in BOLD images. In this talk, a new approach for assessing the functional architecture of brain white matter by fMRI will be introduced. It is shown that newly-discovered anisotropic temporal correlations of fMRI signals between voxels in white matter in a resting state may be used to detect and visualize synchronized functional activity along white matter tracts. This provides an entirely new insight into the relationship between white matter structure and function and suggests new ways to detect activity over extended white matter tracts.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
17
November
2017
1:00pm
Eric Skaar, PhD, MPH
Ernest W. Goodpasture Professor of Pathology, VU
Imaging the battle for metal between host and pathogen   (more ...)
Imaging the battle for metal between host and pathogen   (hide ...)

Hospital and community-acquired infections caused by bacterial pathogens represent an increasing threat to global public health. This threat is compounded by the fact that bacterial pathogens are rapidly becoming resistant to all existing antimicrobial. Research in my laboratory is focused on identifying novel targets for therapeutic intervention against bacterial pathogens with a particular emphasis on systems involved in metal trafficking and metabolism. Metals are essential for all life because approximately 40% of all proteins in nature require metals to carry out their biological function. Bacterial pathogens must acquire metals inside their hosts in order to successfully mediate infection. However, vertebrates have evolved strategies to sequester nutrient metal from invading bacteria in a process known as "nutritional immunity". Based on the strict requirement of bacteria for metal, and the fact that the bacterial and eukaryotic machinery involved in metal acquisition and homeostasis are remarkably different, targeting bacterial machinery involved in metal metabolism has excellent therapeutic potential. This presentation will describe research in my laboratory that is focused on identifying factors and processes involved in the battle for metal between bacterial pathogens and their hosts.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
24
November
2017
1:00pm
Happy Thanksgiving! No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
01
December
2017
1:00pm
Richard Dortch, PhD
Research Assistant Professor, VUIIS
Quantitative Neuroimaging of the Peripheral Nervous System
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
08
December
2017
1:00pm
Daniel Topgaard, Ph.D.
Professor, Lund University
Multidimensional diffusion MRI   (more ...)
Multidimensional diffusion MRI   (hide ...)

Diffusion MRI is an excellent method for detecting subtle microscopic changes of the living human brain, but often fails in assigning the experimental observations to specific structural properties such as cell density, size, shape, or orientation. When attempting to solve this problem, we have chosen to disregard essentially all previous work in the field of diffusion MRI, and instead translate data acquisition and processing schemes from multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy [1]. Key elements of our approach are q-vector trajectories and correlations between isotropic and directional diffusion encoding. To highlight the source of the new methods, we have selected the name "Multidimensional diffusion MRI" [2]. Assuming that the water molecules within a voxel can be divided into groups exhibiting approximately Gaussian anisotropic diffusion, the composition of the voxel can be reported as a diffusion tensor distribution where each component of the distribution can be related to a specific tissue environment. Our new methods yield estimates of the complete diffusion tensor distribution or well-defined statistical properties thereof, such as the mean and variance of isotropic diffusivities, mean-square anisotropy, and orientational order parameter, which are straight-forwardly related to cell densities, shapes, and orientations. This presentation will give an overview of the multidimensional diffusion MRI methods, including basic physical principles, pulse sequences, data processing, and examples of applications in healthy and diseased brain.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
12
January
2018
1:00pm
Yi Wang, Ph.D.
Professor, Cornell University
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM): tissue magnetism, mathematical optimization and clinical applications   (more ...)
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM): tissue magnetism, mathematical optimization and clinical applications   (hide ...)

Tissue magnetism refers to the electron?proton interaction, which is long range with its effects on MRI being treated as static dephasing. In contrast, tissue relaxation refers to the proton?proton (commonly known as spin-spin) interaction, which is short range with its effect on MRI being treated with nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. The long-range magnetism implies nonlocal blooming artifacts in both T2* hypointensity and phase of MRI signal. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is to deconvolve blooming artifacts, using the Bayesian approach to the magnetic field to susceptibility source inverse problem. QSM has become sufficiently accurate and robust for routine applications. QSM is advancing MRI of tissue magnetic susceptibility from simple qualitative detection of hypointense blooming artifacts to precise measurement of biodistributions. Tissue susceptibility contains rich functional and structural information pertinent to molecular electron cloud properties. The dominant susceptibility sources in tissue are biometals, which are vital participants in cellular functions and pathologies. QSM can be useful for diseases that involve neurodegeneration, inflammation, hemorrhage, abnormal oxygen consumption, substantial alterations in highly paramagnetic cellular iron, bone mineralization, or pathologic calcification; and for all disorders in which MRI diagnosis or surveillance requires contrast agent injection. Clinicians should consider integrating QSM into their routine imaging practices by including gradient echo sequences in all relevant MRI protocols.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
19
January
2018
1:00pm
Vandiver Chaplin
Graduate Student
Technologies for image-guided focused ultrasound in the brain   (more ...)
Technologies for image-guided focused ultrasound in the brain   (hide ...)

Focused ultrasound (FUS) has a growing number of therapeutic and neuroscientific applications in the brain. FUS overcomes limitations of many brain interventional technologies by being both spatially precise and non-invasive, and is currently being explored as a tool to probe functional connectivity via acoustic modulation of neurons. To be a safe and effective tool, acoustic beams must be accurately targeted and capable of focusing beyond the skull. We have developed two systems for focusing in the brain. The first is a method for image-guided targeting using MRI and optical tracking, and it has been demonstrated it in vivo. The second uses a custom phased-array transducer optimized for cortical targets in non-human primates. System development and initial data will be presented.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
26
January
2018
1:00pm
Shelly Crescenzi, Ph.D.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Lymphedema and Lipedema in Women: insights into lymphatic disease   (more ...)
Lymphedema and Lipedema in Women: insights into lymphatic disease   (hide ...)

The lymphatic system plays an understudied role in disease, likely due to a lack of methods available for visualizing lymphatics in vivo and studying lymphatic physiology. In this work, we performed fundamental magnetic resonance relaxation time mapping in axillary lymph nodes to optimize structural imaging parameters for the lymphatics. We demonstrate abilities to perform lymphangiography non-invasively using a turbo-spin-echo 3.0T MRI pulse sequence. Together with MR lymphangiography, we utilize multi-nuclear sodium and Dixon MRI to test hypothesized pathways of lymphatic clearance dysfunction that implicate sodium and adipose deposition in women with lymphedema or lipedema, through controlled observational studies, intervention trials, and case examples.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
February
2018
1:00pm
Amanda Buck, Ph.D.
VUIIS
Imaging applications in hemodynamics   (more ...)
Imaging applications in hemodynamics   (hide ...)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to study vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Used in conjunction with CFD, non-invasive imaging approaches can provide subject-specific boundary conditions for models, complementary information, and validation. This talk will address applications of CFD and MRI for the study of subject- and patient-specific hemodynamics. Further, the presentation will cover use of this approach in design of an artificial kidney device.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
February
2018
1:00pm
Paula Trujillo Diaz, Ph.D.
Post-Doctoral Research Fellow
Quantitative Magnetization Transfer in Parkinson's Disease   (more ...)
Quantitative Magnetization Transfer in Parkinson's Disease   (hide ...)

There is a growing interest in identifying neuroimaging-based biomarkers for Parkinson?s disease, (PD) a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the major pathologic substrate is the loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC). Recently, neuromelanin-sensitive MRI (NM-MRI) techniques have been found to provide notable contrast between the SN and LC and surrounding brain tissues with potential applications as biomarker of PD. The contrast in NM-MRI has been associated with magnetization transfer (MT) effects, which can be exploited to obtain quantitative information about tissue physiology. This talk presents the results of in-vitro and in-vivo MRI studies, aiming to investigate the physical mechanisms associated with the contrast observed in the NM-MRI, characterize the impact of MT on NM-MRI, and demonstrate the feasibility of performing quantitative MT (qMT) imaging in human SN and LC, as a step closer to a clinical application in patients with PD.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
February
2018
1:00pm
Fernando Boada, Ph.D.
Professor, New York University Langone Medical Center
Motion Correction of Dynamic MR/PET Data Through Self Refocused Navigators and Coil Fingerprints   (more ...)
Motion Correction of Dynamic MR/PET Data Through Self Refocused Navigators and Coil Fingerprints   (hide ...)

Motion blur is a significant source of quantitative bias in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images from abdominal and chest lesions. Such bias could lead to improper grading of small lesions and/or erroneous assessment of therapeutic response (or lack thereof). Breath-hold techniques can be used to reduce motion blur in several imaging modalities but are not suitable for PET?s long acquisition times. As a result, many attempts have been made to use external motion monitoring sources that could allow retrospective ordering of the PET?s listmode data into discrete motion states (or gates), which can later be spatially co-registered to reduce motion blur. Though these approaches have demonstrated the advantages of tracking abdominal motion, they have traditionally relied on pneumatic sensors whose performance, being quite variable, renders them poorly suited for routine clinical use. The development and commercial offering of MR/PET systems over the last ten years was motivated by the complementary nature of the two modalities (e.g., PET?s sensitivity and MRI?s spatial-temporal resolution) and the anticipated synergies that could, therefore, be exploited. One of these synergies (that has not been fully exploited thus far) is the concurrent nature of the data acquisition, which allows continuous tracking of the abdominal motion without the use of external sensors. Several groups have illustrated the use of motion robust and/or self-navigating MRI sequences for removing motion blur from PET images concurrently acquired with such sequences. Extension of such methodology for use with non-motion robust MRI sequences and, by corollary, to an entire MR/PET examination will be presented along with results demonstrating the bias reduction that can be achieved when such an approach is used.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
February
2018
1:00pm
Benoit Dawant, Ph.D.
Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor
Image-guided cochlear programming for cochlear implants   (more ...)
Image-guided cochlear programming for cochlear implants   (hide ...)

Over the last 20 years, cochlear implants (CIs) have become what is arguably the most successful neural prosthesis. Despite this success, a significant number of CI recipients experience marginal hearing restoration, and, even among the best performers, restoration to normal fidelity is rare. In current practice the programming of the implant relies on behavioral tests and is done without the benefit of information that can be derived from pre- and post-operative images. Over the last 10 years, we have developed a series of techniques that permit the visualization of the inner ear anatomy and of the implanted arrays. Using this information we have developed methods to provide personalized programming guidance to the audiologist. We have evaluated this approach on both adults and children long-term recipients and we have shown that this new image-guided cochlear programming approach leads to improved outcomes. In this presentation we will cover the various steps that are required to provide routine programming assistance.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
02
March
2018
1:00pm
Sumit Pruthi, M.B.B.S.
Associate Professor, Radiology & Pediatrics
Vanderbilt Medical 3D Printing Program   (more ...)
Vanderbilt Medical 3D Printing Program   (hide ...)

The objective of this talk will be to introduce the medical 3D printing program at Vanderbilt. This will include basic introduction to 3D printing, scope and capabilities of our program, ongoing interesting projects and discussion of how medical 3D printing can impactpatient care and reduce costs by bringing this technology in house. Additionally, we will encourage collaboration with faculty and students at VUIIS in hopes of utilizing this technology to drive new innovation within the hospital.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
09
March
2018
1:00pm
Spring Break - No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
16
March
2018
1:00pm
Sasha Key, PhD
Research Associate Professor of Hearing & Speech
TBA
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
23
March
2018
1:00pm
John Gore, Ph.D.
Hertha Ramsey Cress University Professor
Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Physics and Astronomy
Director of VUIIS
Relaxation in the Rotating Frame
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
30
March
2018
1:00pm
Larry Frank, Ph.D.
Professor and Director, Center for Scientific Computation in Imaging
University of California San Diego
Imaging as Exploration New Methods for the Analysis of Data   (more ...)
Imaging as Exploration New Methods for the Analysis of Data   (hide ...)

Advances in modern digital imaging methods are revolutionizing a wide range of scientific disciplines by facilitating the acquisition of huge amounts of data that allow the visualization, measurement, reconstruction, and archiving of complex, multi-dimensional images. At the same time, advances in computing technologies have enabled the deployment of tremendous computing resources, enabling numerical modeling of a broad gamut of scientific phenomena, and resulting in the production of vast quantities of numerical data. These data are just the starting point for the scientific exploration that modern computational and visualization methods enable. But these advanced data generation capabilities come at a cost: with increasing data size and complexity, a premium is now placed on the development of more efficient acquisition and analysis methods. In this lecture, Dr. Frank will discuss how this new paradigm of imaging as exploration is manifest and how the increasing generality of our analysis approaches has led to very general method for data analysis applicable to such disparate fields as brain imaging and severe weather.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
April
2018
1:00pm
Charles Caskey, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Theranostic Ultrasound   (more ...)
Theranostic Ultrasound   (hide ...)

Traditionally used for anatomical imaging, ultrasound as a modality has undergone a massive growth in capabilities and impact within medicine, accelerated by technological breakthroughs in chemistry, materials science, and electronics. In this talk, I will review applications of modern ultrasound methods ongoing at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). The main emphasis will be on ultrasound neuromodulation and ultrasound-enhanced therapy, which are two very active research areas that have potential for high impact. As a neuroscience tool, ultrasonic neuromodulation is very intriguing because it is noninvasive, spatially selective, and capable of stimulating and inhibiting focal regions throughout the entire brain. The combination of this technology with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could provide a very powerful tool to investigate neural circuits. I will discuss ongoing work in our group where we have developed and are applying ultrasound for neuromodulation in non-human primates. Another prominent area of innovation is the use of ultrasound to activate, deliver, or otherwise enhance therapy. In this portion of the talk, I will discuss projects where we seek to improve various therapies with ultrasound, including enhancing ablation with phase shift nanodroplets and mechanical disruption with microbubbles. I will also discuss translational work that is ongoing at VUMC.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
April
2018
1:00pm
Gavin Price, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
In Search of a Visual Number Form Area: Neural Mechanisms of Arabic Digit Processing   (more ...)
In Search of a Visual Number Form Area: Neural Mechanisms of Arabic Digit Processing   (hide ...)

The dominant model of number processing suggests the existence of a Number Form Area (NFA) in the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) that supports the processing of Arabic digits as visual symbols of number. However, studies have produced inconsistent evidence for the presence and laterality of digit-specific ITG activity. Furthermore, whether individual differences in any such digit-specific activity relates to mathematical competence is unknown. In this talk I will present a series of task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and a meta-analysis that investigate these issues. Across studies, our findings indicate that digit-specific activation in the ITG requires top-down attention to digits and appropriately controlled contrasts. However, our findings also show that while there appears to be functional localization for digit processing in the ITG, evidence for functional specialization is absent. Finally, individual differences in math competence appear to be related to digit-specific activation in the ITG, indicating a functional role for the processing of digits as visual symbols in the development of math competence.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
20
April
2018
1:00pm
Taylor Davis, M.D.
Assistant Professor
Advances in Neuroimaging of Cerebrovascular Disease   (more ...)
Advances in Neuroimaging of Cerebrovascular Disease   (hide ...)

The purpose of this session is to discuss recently developed and emerging CT and MR techniques and demonstrate their utility in the evaluation of cerebrovascular disease.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
27
April
2018
1:00pm
Colin McKnight, M.D.
Assistant Professor
The Glymphatic Pathway: A Neuroradiologist's Perspective
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
18
January
2019
1:00pm
Sune Jespersen, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor, CFIN/MINDLab and Department of Physics, Aarhus University
Double Diffusion Encoding: What is it and what can we use it for?
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
01
February
2019
1:00pm
Neal Paragas, Ph.D.
Research Assistant Professor Director, SLU Small Imaging Core Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology University of Washington
Capabilities of InVivo Analytics for Improving InVivo Imaging
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
08
February
2019
1:00pm
Dmistry S. Novikov Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine
Imaging tissue microstructure with MRI: Bridging across scales
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
15
February
2019
1:00pm
Allison Griffin, Ph.D.
Research Assistant at National Institutes of Health
Traumatic Vascular Injury: A Radiological-Histological Analysis of the Pathophysiology Underlying Traumatic Microbleeds
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
22
February
2019
1:00pm
Brett Byram, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, VISE
Cutting through the fog: Eliminating clutter in B-Mode and Doppler ultrasound
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
01
March
2019
12:00am
Saikat Sengupta, Ph.D.
Research Assistant Professor, VUIIS
MRI Of The Moving Body - Challenges and Opportunities
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Tuesday
05
March
2019
1:00pm
Mingfeng Bai, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Radiology & member of the Institute of Imaging Science
Imaging-guided Surgery, Phototherapy and Overcoming Chemoresistance using Light-sensitive Molecular Probes
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
15
March
2019
1:00pm
Ipek Oguz, Ph.D.
Medical Image Synthesis
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
05
April
2019
9:00am
Allison Cohen
Imaging Research Scientist
Development of Molecular Imaging Agents to Advance Precision Cancer Medicine
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
12
April
2019
1:00pm
Junzhong Xu, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, VUMC, Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Physics and Astronomy VU
Microstructural MR Imaging in Cancer
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
19
April
2019
1:00pm
Matthew Rosen, Ph.D.
Director, Low Field MRI and Hyperpolarized Media Laboratory, Co-Director, Center for Machine Learning Harvard Medical School, Harvard Medical School
Life at the bottom: MRI at 6.5 mT
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
26
April
2019
1:00pm
John Gore, Ph.D.
Hertha Ramsey Cress University Professor, Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Physics and Astronomy, Vice Chair for Research, Dept. of Radiology
Functional MRI of White Matter
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Thursday
02
May
2019
1:00pm
Laurie Cutting, Ph.D.
Patricia Rodes Hart Associate Professor
An Integrated View of Neurobiological Processes in Reading and Reading Developement: Finding from the Education and Brain Sciences Research Laboratory
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
24
May
2019
1:00pm
Jason Langley, Ph.D.
University of California-Riverside, UCR Neuroimaging Center
Quantitiative imaging biomarkers in Parkinson's disease
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
06
September
2019
1:00pm
Feng Wang, Ph.D.
Instructor, Radiology and Radiological Sciences
Spin-lock MRI Reveals Spatiotemporal Changes Associated with Tubulointerstitail Fibrosis in Murine Kidney
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
13
September
2019
1:00pm
Doug Noll
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
20
September
2019
1:00pm
Shannon Kolind, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, University or British Columbia
Myelin Water Imaging - Acquisition, Analysis and Applications
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
27
September
2019
1:00pm
Harrison Kim, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, University of Alabama
Point-of-care Portable Perfusion Phantom for Accurate DCE-MRI Measurement of Pancreatic Cancer
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
04
October
2019
1:00pm
Melissa Hooijmans
VUIIS Visiting Postdoc
Quantitative MR in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - the need to develop tools to assess the impact of muscle structure on function
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Thursday
10
October
2019
1:00pm
Fatemeh Adelnia
VUIIS Visiting Postdoc
Searching for a mitochondrial root to the decline in muscle function with aging
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Thursday
17
October
2019
1:00pm
Janine Bijsterbosch, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Radiology, Washington University of St. Louis
Using large-scale fMRI data to develop functional connectivity markers of metal health
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
25
October
2019
1:00pm
Fall Break
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
08
November
2019
1:00pm
Hanzhang Lu, Ph.D.
Professor of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
15
November
2019
1:00pm
Noam Shemesh, Ph.D.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
22
November
2019
1:00pm
Adam Anderson, Ph.D.
Professor, Biomedical Engineering, Radiology and Radiological Sciences, VUIIS
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
29
November
2019
1:00pm
Thanksgiving Break
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
06
December
2019
1:00pm
Crystal Coolbaugh, Ph.D.
Sr. Staff Scientist | VUIIS
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
10
January
2020
1:00pm
Dr. Vibhor Krishna
OSUMC
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
17
January
2020
1:00pm
Zhipeng Cao, Ph.D.
Research Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering
7T MRI: Coul, Reconstruction and Translation
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
24
January
2020
1:00pm
Kathryn Davis, MD, MS, FAES
Assistant Professor of Neurology
Structural and Functional Imaging of the Epileptic Network
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
31
January
2020
1:00pm
Allison Whitten, PhD
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Understanding the impact of temporal lobe epilepsy on hippocampal-language network connectivity
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
07
February
2020
1:00pm
Clarissa Zimmerman Cooley
Instructor at Massachusetts General Hospital Martinos Center for Biomedical Engineering Harvard Medical School
Towards Functional Magnetic Particle Imaging(fMPI)
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
14
February
2020
1:00pm
Rachelle Crescenzi, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
21
February
2020
1:00pm
Mikail Rubinov, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering Vanderbilt University
Tools for Integrative Analysis in Network Neuroscience
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
28
February
2020
1:00pm
Michael Miga, Ph.D.
Harvie Branscomb Professor Professor of Biomedical Engineering Vanderbilt University
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
06
March
2020
1:00pm
Spring Break
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
13
March
2020
1:00pm
Canceled
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
20
March
2020
1:00pm
Canceled
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
03
April
2020
1:00pm
Canceled
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
10
April
2020
1:00pm
TBD
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
17
April
2020
1:00pm
Tony Phipps & Anirban Sengupta
VUMC Trainees
Phipps :Increasing Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Displacement by Reducing Effective Aperture
Sengupta: Intrinsic functional connectivity of spinal cord can be used to differentiate injured monkeys from normal using machine learning
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRBIII Lecture Hall Room 1220
Friday
24
April
2020
1:00pm
Saramati Narasimhan & Jason Lerner
VUMC Trainees
Narasimhan: Identification of Seizure Onset Zones in Resting State Stereo-EEG and fMRI
Lerner: Simulated Muscle Fiber Tracking
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting | Please join our Newsletter for link.
Friday
01
May
2020
1:00pm
Anna Combes & Katelyn Poole
VUMC Trainees
Combes: Investigating spinal cord function in multiple sclerosis with functional MRI
Poole:TBD
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting | Please join our Newsletter for link.
Friday
08
May
2020
1:00pm
Jun Ma & Kalen Petersen
VUMC Trainees
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting | Please join our Newsletter for link.
Friday
15
May
2020
1:00pm
Vilma Jallinoja & Benjamin Hardy
VUMC Trainees
Jallinoja: TBD
Hardy: Characterizing Electromagnetic Field Differences Across Varying Structure and Content in Human Head Simulation Models
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
22
May
2020
1:00pm
Richard Lawless & Louie Treuting
VUMC Trainees
Lawless: Developing an informed CEST exchange model
Treuting: Investigating causal interactions between brain regions in resting-state fMRI
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
29
May
2020
1:00pm
Charlotte Sappo & Christopher Vaughn
VUMC Trainees
Sappo: TBD
Vaughn: MR Barcoding: Gradient-Free MRI Using B1-Selective Parallel Transmission
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
05
June
2020
1:00pm
Tom Manuel & Ben Gold
VUMC Trainees
Manuel: Development of transcranial therapeutic ultrasound systems
Predictive neural processing in the pleasure of music
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
12
June
2020
1:00pm
Fatemeh Adelnia & William Reichert
VUMC Trainees
Adelnia: R1rho dispersion imaging for tissue characterization
Reichert: Evaluating Polyvinylpyrrolidone as a Universal Tissue-Relevant MRI Phantom
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Thursday
18
June
2020
1:00pm
Xingyu Zhou & Michelle Sigona
VUMC Trainees
Zhou: Validating the Measurement of Muscle Diffusion Tensor
Sigona: Developments for image-guided transcranial ultrasound procedures
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
25
September
2020
1:00pm
Georg Oeltzschner, Ph.D.
Instructor of Radiology and Radiological Science
Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
New techniques in edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
02
October
2020
1:00pm
Michael Pridmore, Ph.D.
VUIIS
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Peripheral Nervous System: Applications in Disease & Injury
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
09
October
2020
1:00pm
Anuj Sharma
Canon Medical Research USA, Inc
Working in the medical imaging industry, experience of a former VUIIS trainee
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
16
October
2020
1:00pm
Jason Ostenson, Ph.D.
VUIIS
Extracranial applications of model-based fat-water quantitative MRI   (more ...)
Extracranial applications of model-based fat-water quantitative MRI   (hide ...)

Rapid quantitative MRI (qMRI) sequences applied outside of the brain may be useful for estimating parameters that correlate with pathologies and avoiding motion from breathing. MRI visible fats are ubiquitous in many anatomies, making fat-water separation important to avoid parameter estimation bias and to quantify fat content. This talk will provide two applications of rapid model-based qMRI: in the liver and the characterization of triglyceride moieties. To overcome effects from breathing, qMRI image acquisition can be accelerated by undersampling. Combined with model-based methods, multiple parameter maps can be estimated from data gathered in a single breath hold. Using MR fingerprinting and low rank reconstruction approaches, the feasibility of simultaneous relaxometry with fat-water separation with short scan durations will be explored. Sources of bias such as fat contamination of the water signal, off-resonance effects, image blurring, slice-profile effects, and others will be discussed.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
23
October
2020
1:00pm
Megan Poorman, Ph.D.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
The Rise of Quantitative MRI and Tales from Post-Grad Life at a National Lab   (more ...)
The Rise of Quantitative MRI and Tales from Post-Grad Life at a National Lab   (hide ...)

Quantitative MRI (qMRI) is a rapidly growing area of research with the potential to push MR imaging beyond weighted imaging of anatomy towards non-invasive, quantitative monitoring of biomarkers. In this talk I will discuss hurdles to the adoption of qMRI and how the Magnetic Imaging Group at NIST is working to address these, including my ongoing research in validation of qMRI on the cellular scale and Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. I will also share my experience of what it's like working for a National Lab, and offer advice on how to come up with an answer to the dreaded "What next?" question as you finish up your Ph.D.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
30
October
2020
1:00pm
Kristin O'Grady, Ph.D.
Research Assistant Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences
Vanderbilt Institute of Imaging Science
Multimodal MRI in the brain and spinal cord in multiple sclerosis   (more ...)
Multimodal MRI in the brain and spinal cord in multiple sclerosis   (hide ...)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex and heterogeneous disease of the central nervous system that results in demyelination and neurodegeneration. MRI is integral to diagnosis and care for MS patients, but conventional structural imaging markers of tissue damage in the brain and spinal cord are non-specific for the pathology underlying the radiological appearance of the tissue and provide limited correlation with clinical symptoms, hence the need for advanced, quantitative MRI methods. Differences in disease phenotypes between men and women also highlight the importance of studying sex differences in imaging biomarkers of MS.

In this talk, I will give an overview of my ongoing research on 1) MRI sensitive to molecular changes in the brain in MS; 2) biological variability in spinal cord MRI; and 3) development of quantitative MRI targeting the thoracolumbar spinal cord to better understand pathology underlying bladder and lower limb dysfunction in MS. In celebration of my 10th year at Vanderbilt, I'll also share about my path from preclinical optics and biomaterials research to clinical MRI research.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
06
November
2020
1:40pm
Kenny Tao, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University
Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Multimodality technologies for point-of-care ophthalmic diagnostic imaging   (more ...)
Multimodality technologies for point-of-care ophthalmic diagnostic imaging   (hide ...)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the gold standard for quantitative ophthalmic imaging. The majority of commercial and research systems require patients to fixate and be imaged in a seated upright position, which limits the ability to perform ophthalmic imaging in bedridden or pediatric patients. Handheld OCT devices overcome this limitation, but image quality often suffers due to a lack of real-time aiming and patient eye and photographer motion. We present multimodal technologies that enable simultaneous en face reflectance and cross-sectional OCT imaging for point-of-care ophthalmic diagnostics.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
13
November
2020
1:00pm
Bennett Landman, Ph.D.
Professor of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering and Computer Science, Biomedical Engineering
Professor of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biomedical Informatics, Chancellor Faculty Fellow
Informatics and Computational Imaging: What can we do and why should you care?   (more ...)
Informatics and Computational Imaging: What can we do and why should you care?   (hide ...)

The last decade has seen explosive growth in artificial intelligence and computational imaging. Regular popular press stories discuss the near-magical potential of turning our data over to the cloud and letting algorithms figure out what it all means. While we have seen clear innovations in some areas of society (e.g., self-driving cars, vacuum cleaners), artificial intelligence remains out of reach at the point of care for radiology. First, we will present recent innovations with brain and abdomen segmentation. Second, we will cover the core capabilities of the VUIIS Center for Computational Imaging. Finally, we will discuss emerging community standards for validation and dissemination.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, https://zoom.us/j/97839723660?pwd=TXJick4yZ3FhUzFlQ29CZ1RXVXZOdz09
Friday
20
November
2020
1:00pm
Meher Juttukonda, Ph.D.
Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
Instructor, Harvard Medical School, Research Staff, Massachusetts General Hospital
Imaging-based markers of white matter microvascular physiology and dysfunction

https://zoom.us/j/97839723660?pwd=TXJick4yZ3FhUzFlQ29CZ1RXVXZOdz09   (more ...)
Imaging-based markers of white matter microvascular physiology and dysfunction

https://zoom.us/j/97839723660?pwd=TXJick4yZ3FhUzFlQ29CZ1RXVXZOdz09   (hide ...)

White matter plays a significant role in human cognitive function, and damage to white matter has been implicated as a major contributor to cognitive decline, including in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such damage frequently manifests as white matter lesions, but, while they are presumed to be of vascular origin, physiological mechanisms underlying these lesions remain unclear. As the world?s population continues to age, the study of white matter microvascular hemodynamics in healthy versus abnormal aging will likely be critical for understanding vascular contributions to cognitive decline and developing therapies to alleviate these effects. To this end, I will present 1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches for characterizing white matter hemodynamic function in normal aging and 2) potential microvascular mechanisms that may contribute to white matter lesions and declining cognitive function in older adults at elevated risk for AD. I will also discuss the series of serendipitous events during my undergraduate and postdoctoral stints at VUIIS that have significantly shaped both my interest in these scientific topics and my career in academic research.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
27
November
2020
1:00pm
Thanksgiving Break
No Seminar
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, MRB III Lecture Hall (Room 1220)
Friday
04
December
2020
1:00pm
Vandiver Chaplin Ph.D.
High Performance Computing Engineer, IonQ
How to build a quantum computer in 2**32 easy steps

https://zoom.us/j/97839723660?pwd=TXJick4yZ3FhUzFlQ29CZ1RXVXZOdz09    (more ...)
How to build a quantum computer in 2**32 easy steps

https://zoom.us/j/97839723660?pwd=TXJick4yZ3FhUzFlQ29CZ1RXVXZOdz09    (hide ...)

In 1982 Richard Feynman posited the idea that, one day, laboratory devices with easily controlled and measurable quantum states might permit simulation of large quantum systems, such as large proteins or lattice solids. In proceeding years, theorists have shown us how the quantum simulation problem is similar to a much broader set of computational problems at the heart of many fields of science and engineering. They have given us recipes to evaluate many classically intractable problems, if we had access to one of Feynman's devices. Fast forward to today: the race to build a quantum computer is on, with around a dozen companies worldwide pursuing various approaches, and billions of public and private dollars invested into quantum information science and technology development. In this talk I will give an overview of a trapped-ion device and describe the physics governing its operation as a quantum information processor, and introduce the concepts of computational complexity and quantum algorithms. I will also talk a little about my experiences in transitioning from biomedical research in academia to a quantum computing startup.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting
Friday
11
December
2020
1:00pm
Julianna Ianni, Ph.D.
Director of AI Research at Proscia
Diving off the Deep (Learning) End: How AI is changing the landscape of pathology

https://zoom.us/j/97839723660?pwd=TXJick4yZ3FhUzFlQ29CZ1RXVXZOdz09    (more ...)
Diving off the Deep (Learning) End: How AI is changing the landscape of pathology

https://zoom.us/j/97839723660?pwd=TXJick4yZ3FhUzFlQ29CZ1RXVXZOdz09    (hide ...)

While almost every facet of medicine has been touched over the past decade or more by the rise of artificial intelligence, one corner of the field has remained fairly untouched until recent years. AI has finally come for digital pathology, one of the last "-ologies" to join the digital revolution. As hardware available to scan tissue on glass slides has advanced, along with storage and compute resources, pathologists have begun to turn to computer screens instead of microscopes, and a world of AI applications has opened up. Computational pathology has promised to revolutionize the practice of pathology--increasing diagnostic quality, particularly in the area of cancer diagnosis, and reducing diagnostic turnaround times. We?ll discuss the unique and not-so-unique challenges of deep learning in digital pathology, how today's technology measures up to the hype, applications in skin pathology, and lessons learned from the dive from academia into industry.
VUIIS Friday Seminar Series, Virtual Zoom Meeting